December 27 news, today the State Council Information Office issued "2016 China's space" white paper. The White Paper said China will launch the first Mars probe in 2020, the implementation of joint detection and patrol around. Depth exploration of key technologies such as Mars Sampling Return, Asteroid Detection, Jupiter System and Planet Crossing Detection. The project will be launched in time to study the origin and evolution of the solar system and the exploration of extraterrestrial life information and other major scientific issues.
The white paper shows that the next five years, China will launch the "Tianzhou 1" cargo spacecraft, and orbital operation "Temple II" space laboratory rendezvous and docking, break and master the key technologies such as cargo transportation and supply, Experience in building and operating the space station. The completion of the space station of the main research and development of the space station in the rail assembly and construction operations. To carry out key technology research and related technical test validation, enhance the manned space capabilities, to explore the man-made space exploration and development foundation. It will also carry out the key technology research and program demonstration of the heavy-lift launch vehicle and break through the key technologies of the heavy-lift launch vehicle, the large-thrust liquid oxygen and kerosene engine and the oxy-hydrogen engine, and launch the heavy-lift launch vehicle project.
Accelerate the development of satellite applications industry; focus on strengthening the legal and regulatory system; accelerate the construction of high-level aerospace talent; vigorously carry out; Aerospace Science Education.
The White Paper pointed out that China will face the major scientific and technological frontier, the selection and start the implementation of a number of new space science satellite projects, the establishment of sustainable development of space science satellite series, to strengthen basic applied research, in the field of space science to achieve significant discoveries and breakthroughs, Human Cognition of the Universe.
The following is the original white paper:
"2016 China's Space"
Information Office of the State Council of the People 's Republic of China
table of Contents
First, development purposes, vision and principles
Second, the major progress since 2011
Third, the main task of the next five years
Development Policies and Measures
Fifth, international exchanges and cooperation
Aerospace is one of the most challenging and widely-driven high-tech fields in the world. Space activities have profoundly changed human cognition of the universe and provided important impetus for human social progress. At present, more and more countries, including the vast number of developing countries will develop space as an important strategic choice, the world aerospace activities show a thriving scene.
The Chinese government has made the development of space industry an important part of its overall development strategy, and has always insisted on exploring and using outer space for peaceful purposes. China's aerospace industry since its inception in 1956, has gone through 60 years of glorious history, has created a "two bombs and one satellite", manned spaceflight, lunar exploration as the representative of the brilliant achievements, out of a self-reliance, independent innovation Roads, accumulated a profound broad space spirit. To pass on the spirit of space, stimulate innovation and enthusiasm, the Chinese government decided that since 2016, will be established on April 24 each year as "China Aerospace Day".
"Explore the vast universe, the development of space industry, the construction of space power, is our relentless pursuit of space dream." In the next five years and in the near future, China will adhere to the development concept of innovation, coordination, greenery, openness and sharing, promote the comprehensive development of space science, space technology and space applications, and make greater contributions to the development of the country and the promotion of human well-being. contribution.
To further enhance the international community's understanding of China's space industry, the special issue of "2016 China's space" white paper on China's space activities since 2011, the main progress of the next five years, the main tasks and international exchanges and cooperation and so on.
First, development purposes, vision and principles
(A) development purposes
To explore the outer space, to expand the understanding of the earth and the universe; the peaceful use of outer space to promote human civilization and social progress for the benefit of all mankind; to meet economic construction, scientific and technological development, national security and social progress and other needs, Cultural quality, safeguarding national interests, and enhancing comprehensive national strength.
(B) the development of vision
We will build a strong space power with independent control of innovation and development capabilities, focus on the forefront of scientific exploration and research capabilities, strong and sustainable economic and social development services, effective and reliable national security capabilities, scientific and efficient modern management capabilities, mutual benefit and win-win International exchange and cooperation ability, advanced and open space science and technology industrial system, stable and reliable space infrastructure, pioneering and innovative personnel, deep and broad space spirit, to achieve the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation's dream to provide strong support for human civilization Progress and make a positive contribution.
(C) development principles
China's development of space undertakings obeys and serves the overall development strategy of the country, and insists on the principles of innovation and development, coordinated development, peaceful development and open development.
& Mdash; & mdash; innovation and development. We will put independent innovation at the core of the overall development of space industry, implement major aerospace science and technology projects, strengthen scientific exploration and technological innovation, deepen the reform of institutional mechanisms, stimulate innovation and vitality, and promote the development of space industry.
& Mdash; & mdash; coordinated development. Rationally allocate resources, encourage and guide social forces to participate in space development in an orderly manner, and scientifically coordinate the various space activities to promote the all-round development of space science, space technology and space applications and enhance the overall quality and efficiency of space development.
& Mdash; & mdash; Peaceful development.We must consistently adhere to the peaceful use of outer space, oppose the weaponization of outer space and the arms race in outer space, rationally develop and utilize space resources, conscientiously protect the space environment and maintain a peaceful and clean outer space so that space activities benefit all mankind.
& Mdash; & mdash; open development. Adhere to the combination of independence and openness and cooperation, and actively carry out international exchanges and cooperation in spaceflight on the basis of equality and mutual benefit, peaceful use and inclusive development, and make efforts to promote the common progress and long-term sustainable development of human space undertakings.
Second, the major progress since 2011
Since 2011, China's space industry has witnessed sustained and rapid development, and its capability of independent innovation has been greatly enhanced. The space capability has been greatly improved and the space infrastructure has been continuously improved. The space exploration, manned spaceflight, lunar exploration, Beidou satellite navigation system and high-resolution earth observation system The construction of the project is progressing smoothly. The achievements in space science, space technology and space application have been fruitful.
(A) space transportation system
Since 2011, as of November 2016, the Long March series of launch vehicles completed a total of 86 launch missions, more than 100 spacecraft successfully into orbit, the success rate of 97. 67%, launch vehicle reliability and high density Launch capability continues to increase. China's largest carrying capacity of a new generation of carrier rocket "Long March 5" successful maiden flight, to achieve China's liquid carrier rocket diameter from 3 35 meters to 5 meters across, greatly enhance the "Long March" series carrier rocket carrying capacity, low Rail carrying capacity of 25 tons, high-track carrying capacity of 14 tons, as China's carrier rocket an important symbol of upgrading. 120-ton liquid oxygen kerosene engine to complete the development of the application of the engine "Long March 6" Long March VII "new launch vehicle to achieve the first flight," Long March 11 "solid launch vehicle successfully launched, Carrier rocket spectrum to further improve.
(B) artificial earth satellite
1. Earth observation satellites. ";"; ";"; "; Rdquo; & rdquo; & rdquo; & rdquo; and other satellite series and & ldquo; environment & disaster monitoring and forecasting small satellite constellation & rdquo; further improve; & ldquo; . "Fengyun" series of meteorological satellites have formed polar orbiting satellites, the afternoon satellite network observation, geostationary satellite "multi-satellite in orbit, co-ordinate the operation, each other back up, timely encryption" pattern of business. & Rdquo; & ldquo; "Ocean II" satellite to achieve the sea surface height, waves and sea winds and other marine dynamic parameters of the all-day, all-weather, high-precision integrated observation. "Resource One" 02C star successfully launched, "Resources III" 01,02 stereo mapping satellite to achieve dual-star networking and business operations. High-resolution earth observation system construction in an all-round way, "High Score II" satellite to achieve sub-meter optical remote sensing, "High Score III" Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite resolution of 1 meter, "High Score 4 "satellite is China's first geosynchronous orbit high-resolution earth observation satellite. "Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting small satellite constellation" C star into operation. The use of integrated design of the Star and Arrow "Fast Boat One" "Fast Boat II" successfully launched to enhance the capacity of emergency response to space. "Jilin No. 1" high-resolution commercial remote sensing satellites successfully launched and put into commercial operation.
2. Communications and broadcasting satellites. And comprehensively promote the construction of fixed communication, mobile communication and data relay satellite systems. "Asia-Pacific" in the "star" series of successful communications satellite launch, fixed-satellite communication security system basically completed, covering China's land and key areas of the world. The first mobile communications satellite "Tiantong one" successfully launched. Built by the three "day chain 1" satellite composed of the first generation of data relay satellite system. Star-laser link high-speed communications test a complete success. "Dongfanghong V" super-large communications satellite platform developed smoothly.
3. Navigation satellites. Beidou II system was completed, the completion of 14 Beidou navigation satellite launch network, the official Asia-Pacific region to provide users with location, speed, timing, wide-area differential and short message communication services. Beidou global system construction is well advanced.
4. New Technology Experimental Satellite. Successful launch of "on the 9th" series of satellites and other technical test satellites for the new technology validation provides an important means.
(3) Manned space flight
June 2012 and June 2013, "Shenzhou No. 9" and "Shenzhou No. 10" manned spacecraft has successfully launched, and "Temple One" target aircraft, respectively, the implementation of automatic and manual rendezvous and docking , Marking a comprehensive breakthrough in China's space rendezvous and docking technology, manned world transport system for the first time the application of flight to a successful conclusion. September 2016 and October, "Temple II" space laboratory and "Shenzhou No. 11" manned spacecraft has successfully launched to form a combination and stable operation, carried out a large-scale space science experiments And technical tests, a breakthrough in the mid-term astronauts have mastered the ground long-term task support and security technologies. At present, China has broken through the mastery of manned space, space space, space rendezvous and docking, assembly operation, astronauts in the mid-range manned space technology.
(D) deep space exploration
December 2012, "Chang'e II" lunar probe successfully implemented Tutic asteroid overflight detection. December 2013, "Chang'e III" lunar probe for the first time the realization of China's spacecraft in the extraterrestrial body soft landing, complete lunar surface inspection and inspection. November 2014, lunar exploration project re-entry re-entry flight test a complete success, marking China's complete grasp of spacecraft to re-enter the second cosmic speed re-entry of the key technologies.
Through the implementation of the lunar exploration project, high-resolution lunar image and high-resolution image of Hongwan area were acquired. The research on lunar morphology, lunar structure, lunar surface material, lunar surface and near-space environment was carried out. As well as on-base astronomical observations.
(5) Space launch sites
June 2016, Wenchang space launch launch of the first space mission, marking China's own design and construction, green ecological and technological innovation across a new generation of space launch site officially put into use. Taiyuan, Xichang three launch site adaptation, the basic form of coastal and inland combination, combination of high and low latitude, a variety of shooting range of space launch site layout, to meet the manned spacecraft, space station core cabin, Deep-space detectors and the launch of various types of satellite needs.
(6) Space measurement and control
"Data link satellite series to achieve global network operation," Yuanwang VII "spacecraft ocean exploration vessel successfully maiden flight, deep space monitoring and control station built into use, China Aerospace monitoring and control layout of continuous optimization, the formation of Space and space-based integration, functional diversity, the scale of aerospace monitoring and control network, spacecraft flight control comprehensive ability to continuously improve and complete the "Shenzhou" series of spacecraft, "Temple One" target aircraft, "Chang'e" series.. Lunar probe and earth orbit satellites as the representative of the space measurement and control tasks.
(Vii) Space applications
1. Earth observation satellite applications. Earth observation satellite ground system and application system continues to improve, application areas to expand, application level is rising, application efficiency continues to improve. Land, sea, and air satellites. The ground receiving station will be built and run in a coordinated way. It will form a combination of high and low orbit and reasonable satellite data ground receiving capacity at home and abroad. The ground data processing system, Combined with the data distribution system, data processing, archiving, distribution, service and application of quantitative capacity increased significantly. Industry application system construction to promote, the basic completion of 18 industries and two regional application demonstration system, the establishment of 26 provincial data and application center. The establishment of high-resolution earth observation system application of integrated information service sharing platform, earth observation satellite data has been widely used in industry, regional, public services and other areas for economic and social development to provide an important support.
2. Communications and broadcasting satellite applications. Communications satellite monitoring and control station, the gateway station, the uplink station, standard school and other ground facilities continue to improve, built a certain scale, to meet the needs of the relevant business satellite communication network and satellite radio and television transmission network, satellite communications service capabilities to further enhance the radio and television , Tele-education, telemedicine and other fields play a major role in satellite emergency communications for flood control and drought relief, disaster relief, major emergency disposal to provide an important support.
3. Navigation satellite applications. Beidou system service accuracy and reliability of a substantial increase in the formation of the formation of self-control, complete mature Beidou industrial chain and the Beidou industrial security, application and promotion of the three major systems, Disaster relief, emergency rescue and other fields, and gradually penetrate into the production of human society and people's lives in all aspects of global economic and social development to inject new vitality.
4. Application of space technology achievements transformation. "Internet + satellite application" new format gave birth to the development of public life to provide more quality and convenient services. Through the secondary development of space technology and application of transformation, for the national economy-related industries to provide quality products and services, support and drive new materials, intelligent manufacturing, electronic information and other related fields.
1. Space science satellite. The successful launch of dark matter particle detection, "Practice No. 10", quantum scientific experiments and other space science satellites, for cutting-edge scientific research provides an important means.
2. Space environment of scientific experiments. The use of space science satellites, "Chang'e" detector, "Shenzhou" series of spacecraft and "Temple One" target aircraft, to carry out a series of space science experimental research, deepening the space of microgravity and strong radiation conditions Biological growth, material preparation and other mechanisms of understanding, has made a number of influential research results.
3. Space environment detection and forecasting. The space environment monitoring and forecasting service is provided for the safe operation of the spacecraft by using space science satellites and "Shenzhou" series spacecraft to accumulate the main parameters of space environment and its effect data.
(Vii) Space debris
Space debris monitoring, early warning, mitigation and protection technology system gradually improved, the standard system is constantly improved. Space debris monitoring and early warning to achieve operational operation for the safe operation of spacecraft in orbit to provide effective protection; breakthrough in the design of protective technology, space debris protection project to carry out spacecraft applications; full implementation of "Long March" series carrier rocket final passivation, Effective disposal of abandoned spacecraft to take measures to effectively protect the space environment.
Third, the main task of the next five years
In the next five years, China will accelerate the construction of aerospace power, continue to enhance the basic capabilities of the aerospace industry, strengthen key technology research and cutting-edge technology research, continue to implement manned spaceflight, lunar exploration, Beidou satellite navigation system, high-resolution Earth observation system, A new generation of carrier rockets and other major projects, start the implementation of a number of new major scientific and technological projects and major projects, the basic construction of space infrastructure system, expand the depth and breadth of space applications, in-depth space science research, promote space science, space technology, space applications All - round development.
(A) space transportation system
Development and launch of non-toxic pollution-free medium-sized launch vehicle, improve the new generation of carrier rocket spectrum, to further enhance reliability.
The key technologies of heavy-lift launch vehicles and the deepening demonstration of the program are to be carried out. The key technologies of heavy-lift launch vehicles, large-thrust liquid oxygen and kerosene engines and hydrogen-oxygen engines are launched to launch heavy-lift launch vehicles.
To carry out low-cost carrier rocket, the new upper-level, world travel and reusable transport systems and other technical research.
(Ii) Space infrastructure
Satellite communications and broadcasting, satellite navigation and positioning system, the construction of Tiandi integrated information network, the basic completion of the space infrastructure system, the formation of continuous and stable business service capabilities, and the promotion of satellite and satellite communications and satellite navigation and positioning system to enhance the level of satellite systems and basic product capabilities, the formation of satellite remote sensing; Application industry development.
Satellite remote sensing system. According to a star multi-purpose, multi-star network, multi-network coordination of the development of ideas, the development of land observation, ocean observation, atmospheric observation three series, developed high resolution multi-mode optical observation, L-band differential interference synthetic aperture radar, terrestrial ecology Atmospheric monitoring, ocean salinity detection, and new generation of ocean water color observation. We will gradually form a comprehensive and efficient global observation and data acquisition capability with high, medium and low spatial resolution and reasonable combination of various observation means. Data center, shared network platform and common application support platform will be built and improved to form the global receiving service capability of satellite remote sensing data, and to build and improve remote sensing satellite receiving station network, calibration and authenticity inspection field, data center, shared network platform and common application support platform.
2. Satellite communication and broadcasting system. The development of fixed communications and broadcasting, mobile communications broadcasting, data relay satellite, the construction of high-track broadband, low-orbit mobile satellite-based systems and gateway stations and other ground-based systems Fixed communication, TV broadcast, mobile communication and mobile multimedia broadcasting services, and gradually built up a world-wide network covering all over the world, such as the world-wide integrated information network, synchronous construction of monitoring and control stations, gateway stations, uplink stations and standard fields. , And terrestrial communications network integration of satellite communication and broadcasting system.
3. Satellite navigation systems. Continuously improve the service performance of the Beidou II system. Continue to carry out Beidou global system construction, planned in 2018 for "all the way along" and the surrounding countries to provide basic services; around 2020, the completion of 35 satellite launch network for global users; Satellite-based enhanced system construction, for all types of users with more precision, more reliable service.
(3) Manned space flight
Launch "Tianzhou 1" cargo spacecraft, and orbital operation of the "Temple II" space laboratory rendezvous and docking, break through and master the key technologies such as cargo transportation and supply of space station construction and operation of accumulated experience.
The completion of the space station of the main research and development of the space station in the rail assembly and construction operations.
To carry out key technology research and related technical test validation, enhance the manned space capabilities, to explore the man-made space exploration and development foundation.
(D) deep space exploration
Continue to implement the lunar exploration project, a breakthrough outside the celestial bodies automatic sampling and return technology. The end of 2017, launched the "Chang'e V" lunar probe, to achieve regional soft landing and sampling return, the full realization of the lunar exploration project "three-step" strategic objectives. 2018 years ago, launched the "Chang'e IV" lunar probe, the realization of human detectors in the first soft landing on the back of the moon, to carry out in situ and patrol detection, as well as earth and earth L2 relay communication. Through the lunar exploration project implementation, to carry out lunar surface morphology detection and geological survey, the lunar samples for laboratory research; carry out the lunar landing area geological characteristics of detection and research, and low-frequency radio astronomical observation and research, deepen the lunar origin and evolution Of cognition.
The implementation of China's first Mars exploration mission, breaking the Mars surround, landing, inspection and detection of key technologies. 2020 launch of the first Mars probe, the implementation of joint detection and Surround detection. Depth exploration of key technologies such as Mars Sampling Return, Asteroid Detection, Jupiter System and Planet Crossing Detection. The project will be launched in time to study the origin and evolution of the solar system and the exploration of extraterrestrial life information and other major scientific issues.
(5) Aerospace new technology test
To carry out experimental verification of new technologies for aerospace development to provide technical support.
Practice launch on the 13th "practice" on the 17th, "practice 18", global carbon dioxide monitoring and other technical test satellites, to carry out a new type of electric propulsion, laser communications, a new generation of communications satellites common Platform and other key technology test validation. Start spacecraft on-orbit service and maintenance system construction, using a variety of resources to carry out the new principles, new technologies, new products on-orbit test verification.
(6) Space launch sites
Improve the existing space launch site system, co-ordinate the development of ground facilities and equipment reliability, adaptability and information technology, enhance the launch site complementary tasks and backup capabilities, initially with the ability to launch a variety of launch tasks. Explore and promote the construction of open and shared space launch site, the formation of a reasonable division of labor, complement each other, organic convergence, safe and reliable new space launch system, and continuously enhance the launch site comprehensive capabilities and benefits to meet the needs of various launch tasks.
Space measurement and control
Improve the existing space measurement and control system, construction and operation of the second-generation relay satellite system to improve the accuracy of spacecraft orbit determination to enhance orbiting spacecraft monitoring and management capabilities to strengthen the comprehensive use of monitoring and control resources to enhance the use of space monitoring and control resources to run efficiency, build safe and reliable , Rapid response, flexible access, efficient operation, service-wide integration of space and space monitoring and control system. Exploration and development of commercial space measurement and control system, innovative service model, strengthen international cooperation and monitoring and control networking, open and shared space to build a new pattern of monitoring and control services.
(Viii) Space applications
Improve the spatial application service system, face the industry, regional and public services, and vigorously expand the comprehensive application of spatial information, strengthen the transformation of scientific and technological achievements and marketing, improve the scale of space applications, the level of industrialization, service national security, national economy and society development of.
1. Industry applications. To strengthen the comprehensive application of space infrastructure around the needs of global mapping geographic information resources acquisition, resource development and environmental protection, marine development management and rights protection, disaster prevention and mitigation and emergency response, global climate change governance, food security, social management and public services. , To provide timely, accurate and stable spatial information services to enhance the operational capacity of services.
2. Regional applications. "" Intelligent City "," intelligent traffic "and other satellite integrated applications, services, East, Central and West, the coordinated development of the northeast region, and the development of new urbanization, urban planning, construction, operation management and social service needs, The coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the construction of the Yangtze River economic belt, and other regional economic and social development. Strengthen the national precision poverty alleviation, accurate convergence of poverty alleviation work, for the "young and old edge poor" area and islands and other space information services.
3. Public service. We will develop satellite applications intelligent terminals and wearable electronic devices to enhance the application of spatial information fusion, and vigorously promote the development of industrial applications of space applications, and foster the development of satellite applications, such as intelligent tourism, radio and television, distance education, telemedicine and cultural communication. New economic growth point.
The selection and launch of a number of new space science satellite projects, the establishment of sustainable development of space science satellite series, to strengthen the basic applied research, in the field of frontier space science made significant discoveries and breakthroughs, deepen the human recognition of the universe know.
Space astronomy and space physics. The use of dark matter particle detection satellites, detection of high-energy electrons and high-energy gamma ray of the universe, to explore evidence of the existence of dark matter. Emission hard X-ray telescope to study the process of material dynamics and high-energy radiation in dense gravitational fields of dense objects and black holes. Comprehensive utilization of relevant resources to carry out solar wind and magnetosphere large-scale structure and interaction patterns, magnetospheric sub-storm process response and other studies.
2. Space environment of scientific experiments. The use of "practice on the 10th," the return of scientific experimental satellites, "Chang'e" detector, "Shenzhou" series of spacecraft, "Temple II" space laboratory, "Tianyi No." Spacecraft and other platforms to carry out the space environment of biological, life, medicine, materials and other aspects of scientific experiments and research.
3. Quantum science space experiment. Quantum science experiments and research on quantum key transmission, quantum entanglement distribution and quantum teleportation at the spatial scale are carried out by using the experimental satellite of quantum science.
4. Basic theory and scientific application research. To carry out basic research on solar-terrestrial space environment, space weather, solar activity and its influence on space weather. To carry out interdisciplinary research in space science. We will promote the transformation of space science achievements based on the comprehensive analysis technology of X-ray attribute, energy and space distribution of high-energy electron and gamma ray, space physical environment, extraterrestrial objects, earth electromagnetic field and ionosphere.
(10) Space environment
Improve the space debris, near-Earth objects and space weather-related standards system. Establish and improve the basic data base of space debris and shared data model, coordinate the advancement of space debris monitoring facilities, early warning and emergency platform, network service system construction, strengthen the comprehensive utilization of resources. To further strengthen spacecraft protection capabilities. Improve the space environment monitoring system, build an early warning and forecasting platform to enhance space environmental monitoring and disaster early warning capabilities. Demonstrate the construction of small near-Earth object monitoring facilities, enhance near-Earth small-body monitoring and cataloging capabilities.
Development Policies and Measures
The Chinese government has actively formulated policies and measures to implement the development of space industry, provided strong policy support, created a favorable environment for development, and promoted sustained, healthy and rapid development of the space industry.
China's National Space Administration (CNSA) is the government agency responsible for civil space management and international space cooperation in the People's Republic of China and fulfills the government's corresponding management responsibilities.
(A) the scientific deployment of space activities
Giving priority to space infrastructure construction and application, actively supporting space exploration and space science research, continuing to enhance access to and use of space capabilities, and continuously enhance space security capabilities.
(B) a substantial increase in aerospace innovation
The implementation of a number of major aerospace projects and major scientific and technological projects to promote the development of space science and technology across the country to promote the overall jump in science and technology.
Clear the positioning of various types of innovative features, the establishment of political and industrial research with one of the aerospace collaborative innovation system, the establishment of aerospace technology innovation alliance and industrial innovation alliance, around the industrial chain to create innovative chain.
Promote the construction of aerospace research base (platform), ahead of the deployment of strategic, basic, forward-looking scientific research and technology research, greatly enhance the original ability to innovate and build the national science and technology innovation.
Strengthen the secondary development of space technology, promote the transformation and application of space science and technology achievements, radiation to promote national economic development.
(C) comprehensively promote the transformation and upgrading of space industry capacity
Professional contractors, market suppliers and public service organizations, rooted in the national economy, integration of open space research and production organization system.
The implementation of strong base project, breaking key materials, core components, advanced technology and other basic bottlenecks, strengthen the standard, measurement and other systems.
Accelerate the industrialization and information of the depth of integration, to achieve the ability of the aerospace industry to digital, network and intelligent transformation.
(D) accelerate the development of satellite applications industry
Improve satellite data and resource sharing platform, to achieve the sharing of satellite data and resources to form a satellite application industry, the development of a good environment, to enhance the satellites to enhance the satellite data and resources sharing platform, to improve the satellite application industry development policies, improve national standards and quality system, establish and improve satellite data sharing mechanism; Application overall benefit.
Foster satellite application industry cluster and application market, improve the satellite application industry chain. Strengthen the application of satellite fusion technology development, promote satellite applications and the Internet, large data, Internet of things and other emerging industries integration development, create new products, new technologies, new formats, cultivate new economic growth point, help "; ;
(E) efforts to strengthen the legal and regulatory system
Accelerate the construction of legal space with the law of aerospace law as the core, study and formulate rules and regulations on space data and application management, regulations on export management of aerospace products and technologies, and improve laws and regulations on space launch project license management, space object registration management and scientific research and production license management. , According to guide and regulate all kinds of space activities, aerospace power building to provide strong legal protection.
Strengthen international space law research, and actively participate in international space law formulation.
(6) Perfecting the diversified investment system of spaceflight
Further clarify the scope of government investment, optimize the government investment arrangements, standardize government investment management, and maintain the sustained and stable government funding for space activities.
Further improve the access and exit mechanisms, the establishment of space investment projects list management system to encourage and guide private capital and social forces in an orderly manner in space research and production, space infrastructure construction, space information products and services, satellite operations and other space activities, vigorously develop commercial space .
Promote the government and social capital cooperation, improve the government to purchase space products and service mechanism.
(7) Accelerate the construction of high-level aerospace talent
Improve talent training, evaluation, mobility, incentives and other mechanisms, relying on major projects and major projects to strengthen the strategic scientists, science and technology leaders, entrepreneurs and high-skilled personnel training, Excellent aerospace talent team.
(8) vigorously carry out aerospace science education
Actively organize the "China Aerospace Day" series of activities, and make full use of "World Space Week" National Science and Technology Week "and other platforms, vigorously carry out aerospace science education, popularization of space knowledge, promote space culture, promote spaceflight. Spirit, and inspire people, especially young people to advocate science, explore the unknown, the courage to innovate, to attract more talents to join the space industry.
Fifth, international exchanges and cooperation
The Chinese Government believes that the peaceful exploration, development and utilization of outer space and its celestial bodies are the equal rights enjoyed by all countries in the world. Outer space activities in all countries should contribute to the economic development and social progress of all countries and contribute to the peace and security, survival and development of mankind.
International space cooperation should be guided by the United Nations Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, and the International Cooperation on the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and Interest of All States, Taking into account the basic principles set out in the Declaration on the Needs of Developing Countries. China stands for strengthening international space exchange and cooperation on the basis of equality, mutual benefit, peaceful use and inclusive development.
(A) the basic policy
In carrying out international space exchange and cooperation, the Chinese government adopts the following basic policies:
& Mdash; support the activities within the United Nations system for the peaceful uses of outer space.
& Mdash; to support intergovernmental, non-governmental space organizations to promote the development of space activities carried out by the activities.
"Strengthen bilateral and multilateral cooperation based on common goals, services" and "all the way".
Support for the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization in regional cooperation in space plays an important role, attention in the BRICS cooperation mechanism, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization framework for space cooperation.
Encourage and support domestic scientific research institutions, industrial enterprises, institutions of higher learning and social groups in the country under the guidance of relevant policies and regulations, to carry out multi-level, multi-form of international space exchanges and cooperation.
(B) the main activities since 2011
Since 2011, China has signed 43 agreements or memoranda of understanding on space cooperation with 29 countries, space agencies and international organizations, participated in relevant activities carried out by the United Nations and relevant international organizations, and promoted international cooperation in space commerce.
1. Bilateral cooperation
China and Russia in the Prime Ministerial Committee on regular meetings under the space cooperation subcommittee mechanism, signed "2013 - 2017 Sino-Russian Space Cooperation Program", and actively promote the deep space exploration, manned spaceflight, earth observation, satellite navigation , Electronic components and other fields.
China and the European Space Agency in the European Space Cooperation Committee under the mechanism of the signing of "2015 - mdash; 2020 Sino-European Space Cooperation Program", clear space exploration, space science, Earth observation, monitoring and control services, space debris, education Training and other areas of cooperation, start the implementation of "solar wind and magnetosphere interaction panoramic imaging satellite". The successful completion of the "dragon plan" third phase of scientific and technological cooperation.
& Mdash; China and Brazil in the high-level coordination and cooperation committee under the space subcommittee mechanism, the ongoing development of China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite Cooperation, the successful launch of China-Brazil Earth Resources 04 star, signed the Sino-Brazilian Earth Resources 04A joint development Agreement and the Agreement on Remote Sensing Satellite Data and Application Cooperation to maintain the continuity of CBERS data. In South Africa, Singapore will upgrade the CBERS data receiving station, expand the application of the satellite data on regional and global scale, and actively promote the construction of Sino-Brazilian joint space weather laboratory.
& Mdash; & mdash; China and France in the Sino-French space cooperation under the Joint Committee mechanism, continue to promote Sino-French astronomy, Sino-French cooperation in marine and other satellite projects, signed on cooperation in space and climate change letter of intent to promote space technology applied to global climate Change governance.
& Mdash; China and Italy set up the Sino-Italian Space Cooperation Committee, steadily advancing the Sino-Italian electromagnetic monitoring test satellite project development.
& Mdash; & mdash; China and the United Kingdom continue to promote the Sino-British Joint Laboratory of space science and technology construction, aerospace science and technology personnel to strengthen exchanges, start the application of Sino-British remote sensing research.
& Mdash; & mdash; China and Germany to promote dialogue between the two space enterprises to strengthen cooperation in the field of high-end aerospace manufacturing.
China and the Netherlands signed a memorandum of understanding on space cooperation to promote cooperation in the field of remote sensing applications in agriculture, water resources, atmospheric environment, clear in the "Chang'e IV" mission to carry the Dutch side of the payload.
China and the United States in the framework of China-US Strategic and Economic Dialogue, civil space dialogue, clear space debris, space weather and response to global climate change and other areas to strengthen cooperation.
& Mdash; China and Algeria, Argentina, Belgium, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan and other countries signed an agreement on cooperation in space, the establishment of bilateral cooperation in space technology, space technology, space applications, space science, education and training and other areas to strengthen exchanges and cooperation .
2. Multilateral cooperation
China actively participates in the activities of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittees and Legal Subcommittees, and actively participates in international space law consultation such as the long-term sustainability of outer space activities, and signed the "China National Space Administration and United Nations Earth Observation Data and Technical Support Memorandum of Understanding ", and actively promote China's Earth observation data on the United Nations platform for sharing and cooperation.
& Mdash; mdash; China to actively support the United Nations Disaster Management and Emergency Response Information Platform for Space-based Beijing Office to carry out related work. United Nations Asia-Pacific Regional Center for Space Science and Technology Education (China) in Beijing to promote talent development in the international space arena.
& Mdash; mdash; China in the Asia-Pacific space cooperation framework, actively involved in promoting the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization joint multitasking small satellite constellation project successfully held " Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization Development Strategy High-level Forum, and issued the Beijing Declaration.
China and Brazil, Russia, India, South Africa and other countries and space agencies co-sponsored and actively promote the BRICS satellite remote sensing satellite cooperation.