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Database, the computer science and easy to understand the cognitive data management approach perfect convergence from the last century 50's began, gradually affected and changed the world, but in China, the database is how to start, grow and evolve Into the day of the prairie fire trend, it seems that no one has been systematically combed.
A chance, the author wrote this little text, the information is limited, not the Department, please understand
Was born after the restoration of college entrance examination
In 1978, the first batch of students after the resumption of college entrance examination, left their work farms, factories, and even Xishuangbanna tropical forest, to retrieve the books, into the university campus.
To meet their teacher Sasha Xuan wrote on the blackboard "database" three words, this group has just entered the campus of young people, looking at the hands of the handwritten notes, it seems difficult to understand what this is a product The Not only this group of young people, then the Chinese mainland, who heard the term, but also a very small number of top computer scientists.
Figure 1 China database pioneer & mdash; Sa Shixuan teacher
Internationally, the last century, 50,60 years, with the development of information technology, 60 years with the moon project and other large projects and the database, has been from a new science, into the field of national economy and people's livelihood. In 1961, the United States General Motors developed the first database system DBMS was born. In 1976 Honeywell developed the first commercial relational database system & mdash; Multics Relational Data Store.
In the first year of the introduction of the database, in 1978, the United States Ellison in the CIA to do a data project, the keen to find the relationship between the database business opportunities. A few months later, Oracle 1.0 was born, this seems to be just a product of the database toy, then in addition to complete the simple relationship can not do anything, is such a "toy" ralph lauren pas cher, let Ellison from the information into the management of this Huge blue sea industry, and in just ten years, grew into a world-class giant.
In 1982, Sasha Xuan drafted the first domestic computer professional undergraduate "database system" r 's course syllabus.
China's database of the first batch of the spark of the fire, now most people have been unable to find through open channels, but in the Saxin Xuan online memorial hall, will still see some names: Wang Shan "Introduction to the database system," the author, National University of Defense Technology School of Science Professor Yang Guogui and a bunch of domestic academic leaders, by their preparation of teaching materials, and now is still learning the database of students must see one of the books.
The first generation of Chinese students into the database, into the community is the early 80s, they will be widely into the database of schools, colleges, and research institutions, and thus led the entire 8,9 early China's database industry in the defense , Military and other fields of application.
Today, we can not imagine, but we can imagine that China's first intercontinental missile, China's first generation of supercomputers, China's first positive and negative electronic collider, domestic fighter, and even domestic large destroyers, in eighty years of rapid progress in the country Progress in scientific and technological achievements must have the first generation of Chinese database figure.
Sasha Xuan is the door after the family celebrities, including the Republic of China naval commander Sa town ice and so on. But its life is committed to teaching for students, close to the lovely. Although served as a lot of positions in the field of the database, but according to disciples evaluation, the teacher without a long life, simple life.
July 11, 2010 morning, Sa Shixuan in Beijing's hospital quietly died. Like most Chinese old scientists, today's young people have only been able to find a few words about his search engine.
But by his introduction of China's database industry, but the star fire Liaoyuan, a pulse of the times.
Road is far from its repair Xi, I will be up and down and quest.
---- Qu Yuan "Li Sao"
Oracle rivers and lakes
One day in 1989, Taiwanese Feng Xingjun excited, a few months ago Oracle headquarters decided to enter China, Feng Xingjun with 100,000 US dollars to start the funds to China. At this time, he was surprised to find China's most valuable Chinese vocabulary: Oracle "ralph lauren pas cher," has not yet registered, business sense of his talentedly determined decision to Oracle's Chinese name, registered as Oracle.
This will be the history of Chinese history, the most advanced database technology with the most advanced business ideas, and later became numerous business textbooks repeatedly discussed the brand case.
Since then, the three words of Oracle, on the Chinese mainland take root, almost in the same period, China appeared in two strong demand for the database industry.
In the late 1980s, China's economy began to proliferate, the pace of reform and opening up is deepening, and the flow of information and capital flows grew at a geometric level: in 1978, the total number of users in China was 2.14 million, 2003 Year, the number of Chinese telephone reached 225.62 million. And the bank's business has begun to become more and more complex, the business began to urgently need new tools.
At that time, Zhongguancun piracy to buy a set of Oracle software only need 2,500 yuan, in the United States, a set of Oracle DOS version to sell $ 1,700. Feng Xingjun persuaded Oracle headquarters, allowed him in China will be a set of Oracle DOS version only sell $ 500. There are training, there are services, manuals, prices and piracy, just three months time, Oracle sold 5,000 sets.
Feng Xingjun also has all the features of the business heroes of the year, full of the hasty atmosphere.
Feng Xingjun once developed his own family business into Oracle's largest agent in China after being dismissed, the rumors had been attacking the Oracle meeting site, or even almost black people were assassinated, these are full of imaginary scenes, constitute the That particular year of business rivers and lakes.
"Every time Feng Xingjun's car started, there is a car followed by tracking. Feng Xingjun began to pay attention to this suspicious car, probably observed for a week, Feng Xingjun felt wrong, on the police, the car buckle. Because it did not cause any harm, did not constitute a crime, coupled with the mainland does not belong to the jurisdiction of the region, so the police transferred the case to the national public security departments to deal with the final expulsion of the suspect.Originally, tracking Feng Xingjun is Taiwan's underworld forces, has been lurking in the mainland for half a month, ready to assassinate Feng Xingjun, but has not found the opportunity to start with. & Ldquo;
From --- "IT Times"
But in any case, Oracle so stopped in China, and really let Oracle unified rivers and lakes is "97 works & rdquo ;.
At that time, the telecommunications industry's business volume to an average annual rate of 45 ~ 50% increase, and billing is offline reading, manual finishing, long distance, international business, or even need 2 to 3 months to settle out, the introduction of advanced Database, and build a complete set of service system, has become an urgent task.
In May 1995, the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications proposed the development and construction of the "city telephone business computer integrated management system", that is, "97 project", and in July the same year issued a series of technical and business norms, The post office of the county above the county level before the end of 1997 to implement the "97 project".
"97 project" is divided into nine subsystems, of which, business acceptance, wiring with the number, order management, machine line resources, integrated management and query belonging to the basic subsystem, 112,114, billing, book subsystem and basic The subsystems are fully sharing data. & Ldquo;
Figure 3: 97 works of the seven major systems
In 1997, Oracle successfully won the East Third Provincial Posts and Telecommunications Authority 5 project a large single, but also to Informix (British Fu US software company), SYBASE (Seibers), CA, Digital (DEC Computer Co., Ltd.) and other major industry Manufacturers heavy blow.
And China's first generation of DBA in the 97 project in the rise of these first generation of China DBA, the vast majority of which are already China's telecommunications industry veteran figures: more has become the provincial and municipal level chief engineer.
And even some have left the field of telecommunications, into the career. According to the author statistics, which has the highest position of the official deputy deputy sequence. More people have been financial freedom, began his life another journey.
China's database industry structure in this period formed: the financial industry with IBM DB2 database, Informix database, in the telecommunications industry, it is Oracle's world.
At the same time, a number of enterprises around the ecological growth of Oracle, but also gradually grow, one of the most typical is AsiaInfo Technology: 2000, AsiaInfo listed on the US Nasdaq. At the same time, also born from the state-owned enterprises to the telecommunications now founded the cloud and En ink Oracle ACE director Eygle (cover Guoqiang) teacher.
Figure 4: Oracle ACE Director Eygle (Gai Guoqiang) teacher
This is also the golden age of the Oracle database, in the winter of this year, Sweden under a great snow. After the snow, the independent commercial company MySQL AB was established in the central city of Sweden Uppsala.
And early in the company before the establishment of 1995, May 23, 1995, MySQL's first internal release began.
Interestingly, the first official version of MySQL happens to run only on Sun Solaris, as if it was the future of Sun's acquisition of fate.
And the father of MySQL Monty did not join Sun, but the departure of the creation of the Monty Program AB, took the MySQL code to continue to develop new branches & mdash; MariaDB, and then continue the legendary story, we will continue to tell.
Figure 5: MySQL evolution diagram
At this moment of China, the turn of the century, is also changing the eve.
In 1999, Alibaba was born in 1999, Tencent was born, to June 30, 1999, the number of domestic Internet users has more than 400 million.
The old golden age is still going on, but the new story is coming.
Beginning in 1999, individual IT communities began to emerge, and some database peers began to move out of closed companies, active in the community, and more database practitioners in the form of knowledge, from product documentation, manuals, and communities.
"At that time the whole of the technical community which we can get the first-hand information is still relatively small, so there are relatively strong technical staff will go to see the English documents, foreign websites, and then go back and do experiments, and then go Community to share, to help others solve some problems. "The older generation of DBA Tong Jiawang talked about his own experience of ITPUB removed when said.
It is the DBA's pastoral era, when the DBA circle is not large, almost all gathered in Beijing, the community was rushed to call, line line string, a large number of respondents. Everyone side of the line string, while the problems encountered with their own exchange.
And this period, but also the beginning of the rise of the Internet companies, the demand for the database has become increasingly strong.
That time in the market, there are three companies DBA is recognized as the industry Daniel, one ebay, the second is Taobao, three was the beginning of the Alipay. Floor Fang Xin, Feng Dahui are the representative of the year to pay treasure database, Lou Fang Xin in 2005, the development of Oracle's disaster recovery tool AUL, ten years later still often received help mail. And Feng Dahui involved in editing two Oracle technical books: "Oracle database performance optimization", "Oracle Database DBA special technical essence" in the field of the database has a wide range of influence.
And ebay, then now has to go to the United States eaglefan, jade face dragon, and still stay in the only goods will be represented by the super.
A fatal flaw in Oracle's database began to expose, expensive. Not only Oracle software expensive, to maintain the Oracle database + IBM minicomputer + EMC spending is also quite large, the other for the administrator's ability to request, is also very high.
Not only that, the first is Oracle as a commercial product, itself has the upper limit of performance, the second is the black box. For no experience of the scene, no matter how hard, but also can not predict the possible problems. "At that time the Taobao database god Yu Feng told reporters.
Most of China's Internet companies are sultry, very cost-effective for the fancy, and this time, the US Yahoo began to take the lead in the use of MySQL database, once in the world there are thousands of servers are using MySQL database.
At that time Yahoo's aura, much higher than today's Google, FB, can be said that today all of China's Internet company's architecture, you can find the source in Yahoo, Yahoo's demonstration effect, and soon China's Internet companies began their own MySQL Road.
Alibaba has been known as Oracle's "star customers", "Whampoa Military Academy" was born Feng Chunpei, Chen Jiping and Wang Hai and many other Oracle cattle, they opened the Mercedes-Benz when the bike can not afford to buy.
But with Taobao, Alipay and Alibaba B2B registered users surge in the number of users of the data generated more and more, even if the use of hot and cold isolation can not solve the problem of large-capacity data and large concurrent problems, Taobao enabled the whole of Asia The largest Oracle RAC cluster, Alibaba B2B Chinese station data volume due to large amount of data and business requirements, each morning 08:00 and 09:30 between the CPU to maintain 98% utilization, LOAD is also high, even if the replacement of storage devices Soon there will be such a situation again.
The use of open source MySQL, with the commercial product Oracle important difference is that open source software is only a basic framework, although already have a mature community, but the product itself needs to polish, a problem without technical support, can not support Ali internal Of the database needs, at the time it seems, not so sure.
"At the end of 2009, was responsible for Taobao technical budget Liu Zhenfei reported to Wang Jian, made Taobao" 2010 will not buy IBM minicomputer "did not expect to be Wang Jian challenge:" Since 2010 can not buy a small machine , Why should give yourself after the road may also buy it? You want to see the board on the PPT clearly write: Taobao 2010 no longer buy a minicomputer. & Rdquo;(A): to IBM, PC Sever alternative minicomputer; to Oracle, with MySQL instead; to EMC , In the low-end storage & rdquo ;. He finally ended with an exclamation point, bold wrote: "Taobao 2010 no longer buy a minicomputer!" & Rdquo;
---- from Alibaba magazine "Ali magazine"
It is hard to imagine that after the explosive growth in the future, including the 2014, 15,16 pairs of eleven as the representative of the payment peak, the next single peak, if there is no self-study MySQL branch, what will happen.
The MySQL open source features, but also to replace the Oracle database provides a good foundation: MySQL actually 64-bit hardware out, a few weeks out of the 64-bit software platform. Solid-state storage technology came out after a few months after the FB on the open source storage cache plug-in.
In the knowledge of the Church co-founder Ye Jinrong (the original Sohu DBA) It seems that the open source database represents a new model, but not to say that open source database should be completely free, but also can take the business service route.
Therefore, MySQL in the domestic Internet companies gradually began to replace the status of Oracle's rivers and lakes, as many Chinese Internet companies preferred. Sina's Yang Haichao, where to Zhou Yanwei, Sohu's Ye Jinrong is also in this wave of growth in the MySQL leader, in addition, Tencent, Baidu, Netease, millet, all network, Jingdong and many other enterprises are MySQL Users with open source contributors.
Jingdong Finance has a fun of the MySQL Daniel Liu Qirong had joked with the author said: get MySQL, side for the 仌. Also implies that now MySQL in the Internet company's position.
Figure 6: Liu Qirong and Yu Feng
In the background of Ali to O, a wave of people have become a senior expert in the field of MySQL: such as Zhang Rui, He Yunfei, etc .; the other part of the twists and turns in the twists and turns in the transformation of the entrepreneur, including the creation of the Wal-Mart Li Chun, hot Pu's official, the civilian structure of the building Fang Xin, went to the clove garden now founded the codeless technology Feng Dahui, there are kangaroo cloud Chen Jiping, among which there are no shortage of financing or even hundreds of millions of successful entrepreneurs The (If you are interested in the next one we can write a DBA business legend, according to the author's observation in the side, have to say DBA career success probability is much higher than other occupations)
Today, Ali's well-known database of database experts Ding Qi, He Dengcheng, etc. are also from Baidu, NetEase and other major Internet companies to grow up, of course, there are places where the Arabians Peng Li Xun, Zhai Weixiang.
In order to ensure that double 11, they maintain a MySQL branch, called AliSQL. Learned from the knowledge of Ye Jinrong teacher evaluation, in the common benchmark test scenario, AliSQL version than the official version of MySQL has a 70% performance improvement. In 1816 Hangzhou Yunqi conference AliSQL announced open source, claiming that in the spike scene, the performance increase of 100 times.
In addition to MySQL, PostgreSQL, Redis, MongoDB and HBase are also active, PG's leader Dege, MongoDB's TJ, Reids Pengcheng, HBase Cao Long and others are also active in the open source database of the Chinese Internet, The major database of the General Assembly and the community, together to find a new direction of the Chinese database. In addition Ali cloud Redis, domestic database Ju Shan also have their own source code, joined the open source database army.
Rumors of many new domestic database such as the National People's Congress, up to the dream, Shenzhou GM, Han Gao, the capacity, Gauss, etc. are also more or less to learn, worship these open source database after the research and development, open branches scattered leaves.
New challenges are always ahead.
Industry change, new challenges
On January 16, 2008, Sun announced that it had entered into a deal with MySQL AB to acquire MySQL AB for approximately $ 1 billion. Sun to MySQL AB set the business path is to expand the user and the developer community, and then create a business service to attract paid users. But the father of MySQL Monty did not join Sun, but the departure of the creation of the Monty Program AB, took the MySQL code to continue to develop new branches & mdash; MariaDB.
Figure 7: MySQL founder Monty (left) and MariaDB Foundation
History is often a mantis cicadas cactus in the post, sun has not had time to display their own ambitions in MySQL, they fell into the plight of the plight, continued to decline in performance, so that the sun has been in the day the stock fell nearly 23%. The market value from 200 billion US dollars quickly fell.
Ultimately, sun was acquired by Oracle, and MySQL also fell into Oracle pocket.
This time the acquisition, bringing the impact of the database industry is huge, in fact the formation of a monopoly (although there are Microsoft SQL server, IBM DB2, etc.). More and more people worry that MySQL will gradually become a class of business software. According to rumors, MySQL 8.0 licensing agreement will become more harsh than it is now.
In 2013, the prism door incident, lurking in the public field of view outside the domestic database one by one, up to dream, gold warehouse, supernatural powers, South and a number of domestic database has been widespread concern, but these databases are used in central enterprises, national finance, military And other special areas.
In the general field, completely does not belong to any organization of open source database and self-research database will be the mainstream of the future, which is MariaDB has been widely concerned about the reasons, Ali, Tencent has sponsored MariaDB.
Cloud database, more dazzling future
At the 2015 AWS re: Invent conference, Amazon announced Amazon Aurora. Aurora is a relational database that replicates 6 data across 3 available areas, designed to provide high performance and high availability (99.99%).
In China, the author speculates that the future is most likely to launch self-study general-purpose database will also come from cloud computing vendors, the database on the cloud after a lot of play has just begun, Cloud Native's database will provide a more imaginative future.
In the country, the current cloud computing product line is the most complete Ali cloud, and with the self-research financial database OceanBase, Ali cloud is fully capable of launching a self-study general database in a day, this speculation is not To be groundless. In a database conference, the author and Ali Yun Yu Feng team chat that Ali cloud is developing a common database, called the polar DB?
According to its introduction, Ali cloud of this research database products in the general scene performance can reach several times MySQL, and the cost is only about half of MySQL, I guess Ali cloud this new self-research database product performance and price bonus It should be from the self-study of the distributed storage system (the following is the General Assembly according to several Daniel information reduction of the map, it should be similar with the Aurora principle)
According to the author of the domestic Internet company's understanding, once Ali cloud launched self-study cloud database, Huawei cloud, Tencent cloud and other domestic second-tier cloud computing players may be in the self-study cloud database to speed up the pace, but whether this building Ability, it is a matter of opinion.
Some analysts believe that by 2020 the sum of the data generated by human beings will be 100ZB, and with the large data, artificial intelligence, the rise of Internet of Things, the future of the database will become increasingly rich, relational database, non-relational database, structural database , Timing database, etc. will be more and more widely used in the near future, cloud-based cloud database will be more and more people's lives.
China's database history, along with the development of the times, the story continues.
Whether you are in Taobao orders, or brush friends circle, and even your traffic costs, your bank card bill.
Behind all the articles that mention or mention the contributions made by people.
Therefore, the author suggested that, at the end of this article, we all pay tribute to all the pioneers and practitioners who have contributed to the development of the Chinese database industry.
This world, because these are ideal and curious people, become better.
Author: Lin Yi, mistakenly hit into the cloud computing circle from the media people, had interviewed Ma, Wang Xing, Wang and other commercial businessmen, good at writing a variety of business observations, industry perspective, like radio, Internet technology As well as Lego.