The geostationary orbit communication satellite represents the development level of a national satellite communication. It is an important resource which is the basis of the information superhighway. It is an important embodiment of the national comprehensive strength and technical level. Often in the domestic travel people know that in the flight of the aircraft, in the ocean sailing ships, mobile phones, notebooks can not get on the network, the same high-speed operation of the high-speed rail, the phone signal is intermittent, but with the China's new generation of communications satellite development, air Internet chat, ocean video entertainment, remote mountain signal coverage will become a reality.
China launched a super satellite: after the million meters high, the vast sea can be high-speed Internet
China 's independent research and development technology to break foreign monopoly air communications
Maritime video will no longer be a dream
April 12, 2017, China in the Xichang Satellite Launch Center using the Long March III B launch vehicle successfully launched the practice of thirteen satellites, satellites in orbit after the test was named the star 16. This is China's first high-throughput communications satellites, the total communication capacity of more than 20G, the true sense of the realization of independent communications satellite broadband applications.
Aerospace Science and Technology Group five senior engineer Zhang Wei: high-throughput development of this technology, representing the ground now we can use our satellite to achieve the video. The original can only achieve a voice communication function, and now we can video, then there is a big application direction is our plane. This is the first time in China on communications satellites, using Ka-band broadband communication technology.
Satellite capacity is like a highway, the original communication satellite C-band and Ku-band capacity can only accommodate two cars at the same time forward, can carry the goods, that is, information is limited. But Ka-band satellite capacity will be much larger, it can simultaneously travel on the road 10 or more cars, can carry the amount of information data is far more than other bands. The breakthrough of this technology means that the future through the communications satellite can be anytime, anywhere to achieve broadband Internet access, especially in the terrestrial communications network can not cover the region, as well as aircraft, high-speed rail, ships and other means of transport, can achieve broadband communications.
Zhang Wei: Now we all know that aircraft can not achieve the communication, the future of HTS (high-throughput communications satellite) after the promotion of technology, we later in the aircraft above can also be based on satellite to achieve our communications, including high-speed rail, Etc., HTS is a very popular application direction.
Zhang Wei told reporters, relying on high-throughput communications satellite technology, the future will build a satellite broadband communications network, regardless of the time in the plane of high altitude, rapid speeding high-speed rail, or the vast sea of ships, and no smoke desert , Mountains, islands, can be high-speed browsing network, video calls.
At present, Aerospace Science and Technology Group has relied on Zhongxing 16 high-throughput satellite, developed for the field, high-speed rail, ships and other aspects of satellite mobile communications terminal products. The original satellite communication terminal, limited by satellite design, the size is relatively large, are generally installed in the building above or large vehicles. And now rely on high-throughput satellites, communications satellite terminal receiver can be miniaturized, ordinary home SUV can be installed. Aerospace Science and Technology Group five hospital senior engineer Zhang Ge for the reporter demonstrated a set of portable satellite broadband communication system, the system has a key to the star function, in the earthquake-stricken areas, ground communication network damage to the case, you can quickly connect the network The
In addition to this portable satellite broadband communications system, Zhang Ge led the team, is also developing for high-speed rail cars, ocean-going ships on the satellite broadband communications system.
Aerospace Science and Technology Group five senior engineer Zhang Ge: At present, our equipment is to support more than 500 people, that is, you are in a luxury tanker, installed such a device, the whole ship can pass WIFI, is to take your Ordinary mobile phone, and then connected to the ship's WIFI, you can directly through the Internet to visit the Internet.
Zhongxing 16 will be technical and demonstration applications combined for the first time in the geostationary orbit satellite to carry out high-speed laser communication test, the maximum rate of up to 2.4 G. Satellite laser communication with communication capacity, transmission distance, confidentiality and other advantages, if the test is successful, marking China in the field to reach the international advanced level.
August 6, 2016, China in the Xichang Satellite Launch Center successfully Tiantong No. 01 star launch, which is China's satellite mobile communications system star, also known as "China version of the maritime satellite" and " Its successful launch marks the entry of our mobile phone into the mobile phone "mobile phone era & rdquo ;.
After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the earthquake area ground communication network was completely paralyzed, when China did not have its own mobile communication satellite system, can only rent abroad satellite telephone earthquake relief. The international mobile satellite system has formed a number of global or regional coverage of the mobile communication system, not only widely used in personal communications, marine transport, ocean fisheries, air passenger and other fields, but also in the earthquake, floods, frost and other natural Disability communication can be achieved and the location is determined. After the Wenchuan earthquake, Tiantong one project.
Reporters learned that Tiantong No. 1 satellite technical indicators and capabilities to achieve the international mainstream mobile communications satellite level, and has complete independent intellectual property rights. In particular, Tiantong No. 1 satellite to solve the large antenna can expand the technical problems, making the use of satellite terminals on the ground more compact, mobile phone.
Several generations of scientific research staff selfless dedication
So that China's satellite business from scratch, from backward to leading
Over the years, our communications satellites have been successfully launched and put into use, covering cutting-edge technologies and applications for the development of current communications satellites such as radio and television broadcasts, high-throughput broadband satellites, mobile communications satellites, and data relay satellites. Looking back at the beginning, we began to develop the satellite, not only is poor and white. And the foundation is weak, in such conditions, our researchers adhere to self-reliance, selfless dedication, and ultimately out of a Chinese communications satellite research and development of the road, although this road is not smooth, but also experienced setbacks and hardships.
In the China Aerospace Science Group's five homes in the exhibition hall, placed from Dongfanghong 1 to Dongfanghong four satellite real products, they witnessed the development of China's telecommunications satellite road.
Dongfanghong No. 1 was a poor and white, the basis of weak economic and technological conditions, the older generation of aerospace science and technology personnel through self-reliance developed out of China's first man-made earth satellite, due to the technical level of the restrictions, it does not have the communication function.
Aerospace Science and Technology Group five senior engineer Zhang Wei: After the success of this satellite, in fact, is to create our national artificial earth satellite precedent, but its significance is more only reflected from scratch, that our satellite is Implement in use.
After the success of Dongfanghong 1, in order to let the communication satellite really implement to the practical, to Sun Jiadong, Qi Fazhuan as the representative of the older generation of aerospace science and technology personnel, set up to rely entirely on their own strength, developed the Chinese people's own communications satellite "faith, after nine years of tackling tough, and ultimately the successful development of Dongfanghong II communications satellite. April 8, 1984, Dongfanghong II pilot communications satellite launch success, so that China ranks among the fifth in the world to independently develop, launch geostationary orbit satellite countries.
Subject to the development of electronic components at the time, the technical level of materials science research, Dongfanghong II satellite load is small, short life, satellite C-band transponder only 2 Road, and then the international advanced level communications satellite C slope section transponder Has reached 24 Road, life is also up to ten years.
Zhang Wei: At that time can provide the power is very small, because the solar cell so much, so it can provide the power is so big. So when our country's communication satellite on-orbit life is relatively short, is five years, can provide the effective power is very low, so the so-called transponder number, is a few passers.
The main load of the communication satellite is the transponder, all the way forwarders can send more than 10 sets of standard definition television programs, the greater the load of communication satellites, the number of transponders, means that can send more radio and television programs to provide greater Communication capacity. Zhang Wei told reporters, because at that time Dongfanghong II can not meet customer needs, the domestic also appeared "to buy stars" or "l" and "spark" controversy. At that time the environment, the space people have no choice, in the technical foundation is weak, poor facilities conditions, according to the international level at the time of the development of Dongfanghong No.3 satellite.
Zhang Wei: Dongfanghong II is a spin-stable satellite, to the East Red No. 3, we are engaged in a three-axis stability of the satellite, using the sun wing of this way, then the technical cross-generation Very large, can only inherit Dongfanghong II about 20% of the technical basis, the remaining 80% are based on our Chinese aerospace independent innovation to achieve.
From the national project in 1986, to the successful launch of Dongfanghong No.3 satellite in 1997, the researchers have been able to solve the problems of hundreds of technical difficulties and have more than ten years of hard work. The failure of the first satellite launch failed. Dongfanghong No.3 satellite not only achieved the development of China's communications satellite technology across, but also for the Chinese space industry to provide a highly reliable communications satellite platform.
In 2000, aimed at the world-class level of the East Red 4 began to develop the project, the satellite platform design life increased to 15 years, carrying the transponder increased to 52 Road. At that time, Dongfanghong four communications satellite market goal is not only to occupy the country, but also to go out to seize the international market.
In the Dongfanghong four communications satellite platform research and development at the same time, they are still carrying out the Dongfanghong four market development, in May 2002, and Xinnuo Satellite Communications Co., Ltd. signed the Xinnuo II satellite procurement orders; 2004 May, participated in the Nigerian communications satellite satellite star development and launch project tender, from the United States, France, Britain and other 21 companies stand out, succeeded in winning.
Zhang Wei: Dongfanghong four satellites, its weight reached 5 to 5.5 tons, the load capacity of about 600 kilograms, this level is actually with the international advanced level, basically maintained at a level, so through the East Red on the 4th, we are actually realized from the run with a transition to the process of running.
2010, focusing on the next 20 years, the demand for high-power communications satellites, high load, high power, long life, scalable new generation of Dongfanghong 5 satellite began to develop the project, while the aerospace technology group five homes are also tracking the world's most Cutting-edge technology to expand the original satellite platform technology level. In order to improve the payload of communication satellites, they want to make electronic systems smaller and smaller.
Aerospace Science and Technology Group, deputy director of the five architects Palace Jiang Lei: These products, in fact, we are the entire communications satellite integrated electronic system, relying on a hardware product, and now these four products is actually replaced by more than 20 Taiwan products, including the number before, the volume is relatively large, we have reduced by about 50%, which in the whole world is also a relatively leading level.
Tracking the world's cutting-edge technology, in some technical areas to achieve technology beyond, which is aerospace technology group five in the development of communications satellites in the inevitable choice. Chen Yue 2008 graduate, came to the Space Technology Group five homes responsible for the control of communications satellite development work. Work for more than two years, he went to the courtyard to carry out communication satellite no material electromagnetic propulsion research, when the study there is still a huge controversy.
Aerospace Science and Technology Group, deputy director of the five designers Chen Yue: the most important point is that this technology may now scientific principles, not yet fully clear the case, in the project R & D, is not a great risk , Is there a reason for the existence of the wrong, this is the main controversial point.
In the space of communication satellites need to adjust the attitude and track to maintain, so the satellite will carry a large number of propellants, the traditional way of chemical propulsion is propelled by oxidation to produce thrust. And now on the satellite began to use the electric propulsion method, it is to carry the working fluid ionization, and then spray out the ion to produce thrust, the two kinds of propulsion methods are required to carry the working fluid, that is, propellant and gas.
Chen Yue: the image that is stored inside the tank inside the liquid or gas, once the use of these workers light, then the engine can no longer be used, life to the. And now we advance this way, this electromagnetic propulsion, it is as long as there is electricity, as long as the equipment can work properly, it can work, can produce thrust.
Without any technology, experience can learn from, there is no reference to any foreign information, the technology both at home and abroad, are in the technical trials of the initial stage, Chen Yue and his team is facing a huge challenge.
In order to encourage young people to innovate, Aerospace Science and Technology Group set up five special research and development fund, Dr. growth fund to give financial support, but also for the core staff for three years do not do business assessment, and personnel, laboratory equipment to give strong support to ensure that they Concentrate on doing technical research.
Chen Yue: through our hospital science and technology independent research and development fund, our independent research and development of the Fund, to support us, so that we can no heart, do not have to worry about the conditions of protection in this case, To do this thing, it can be said that this is like a hatch, if not the original hatching conditions, we will not have this progress now.
Reporters learned that, at present, on behalf of China's communications satellites to reach the international advanced level of the East Red five satellite platform a number of key technologies to achieve a major breakthrough, to be verified on the track. Dongfanghong 5 platform full star power to 30000 watts, the payload of more than 2000 kg, carrying the number of transponders to reach 120, some technical indicators than the level of developed countries. Dongfanghong 5 platform above the vast majority of products, to achieve the true sense of the localization, independent control, no longer dependent on imports.
Half an hour observation: aerospace, China's most shining "business card & rdquo;
From the first Dongfanghong a satellite, to the world's leading level of the East Red five satellites, the development of China's communications satellite has gone from scratch, from the follow and run the road of development.
The level of development of communication satellites represents a country in the field of aerospace science and technology level of science and technology, but also an important embodiment of the national comprehensive strength. Although we have experienced failures and frustrations on the road to the development of communications satellites, we have been in the forefront of international communications satellites in just a few decades.
This is the vast number of aerospace science and technology workers quiet selfless dedication of the results, but also the continuation of the spirit of the older generation of space.