(Original title: China Laboratory 2︱ Zhang Dequan: "explosion models" artificial meat in China will not become the mainstream)
Surging news correspondent Dong Ling Ling
"Artificial meat" looks and feels very close to farmed poultry meat, and producers believe that if animal husbandry is removed from the meat supply chain, issues such as global climate change, depletion of natural resources and disease transmission are all significant improve.
Chinese meat consumption ranks first in the world. According to the International Institute for Food Policy, China's per capita consumption of meat in 2016 amounted to 59 kg. It is estimated that there will be a minimum of 10 million tons of meat demand in China in the next 20 years. So, is China's supply of meat needs sustainable? Need to look for meat alternatives? Is it possible for consumers in China to get a change in the supply of food ingredients like "artificial meat"?
During the second quarter of the "China Laboratory", researcher Zhang Dequan, chief scientist of the innovation team of meat processing and quality control in the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, told Surging News that by 2020 China's supply and demand for meat will be in balance. The future of plant protein "artificial meat" will be a useful supplement to the market to meet the consumer demand for consumer diversity, but it will not become mainstream consumer.
The current hot meat, frozen meat is the mainstream of China's meat consumption, accounting for more than 70 percent. Professor Zhang Dequan expected three decades later, the Chinese market will be the same as in Europe and the United States to chilled meat, chilled meat based. At present and even for the next decade, new technologies that meet the needs of the Chinese market will enter the daily life: low temperature and high humidity variable temperature thawing technology allows frozen meat to keep ice crystals continuously and slowly disappearing under certain conditions, reducing protein and fat oxidation rate and thawing juice loss To 1%, the time required is one-third shorter than that of the traditional air and the hydrolysis and thawing; the fresh-keeping technology of ice-cold keeps the fresh meat under the condition of ice-cold temperature through the regulation of temperature, and the shelf life is prolonged from the current 10-15 days 40-45 days.
In the future, the development of the central kitchen, industrial 4.0 and unmanned plants in the meat processing industry will allow consumers to eat delicious, nutritious, safe and convenient Chinese traditional meat products all over the world.
Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences meat processing and quality control innovation team chief scientist Zhang Quan
China's meat supply and demand are sustainable
Surging news:Economic growth and urbanization have driven changes in the dietary structure and the meat consumption in China has continued to rise. Total meat production in 2016 was 85.4 million tonnes, with customs data indicating a 6% import dependence. Will our future for meat demand growth be sustainable?
Zhang Dequan:China's per capita GDP has surpassed 8,000 U.S. dollars, and the contradiction between the people's diet and consumption has become the contradiction between the continuous demand and supply of nutritious and healthy food, and an imbalance. Nutritional health food is an important nutrient is animal protein, the next 10-20 animal protein demand will continue to steadily increase.
"Chinese dietary reference intake of nutrients," provides that protein intake from light to manual workers to heavy physical workers, men and women are 70 grams to 110 grams, 65 grams to 90 grams of women, our country is now an average of 40 grams Left and right, there is still a big gap. So from the future development,People's demand for high-quality meat and custard will certainly continue to increase, there is still much room for growth in meat demand.
According to the data from the Meat Industry Association, China's meat production and net imports in 2016 totaled about 90 million tons. It is estimated that the total consumption of meat will reach 100 million tons by 2020, when the supply and demand gap will be nearly 10 million tons. However, I think that by reasonably developing intensive farming and orderly imports, the supply and demand of meat in China will be sustainable in the next five years.
China's meat production increased from the "Tenth Five-Year" to "Twelfth Five-Year", the amount of meat every five years gradually decreased. An increase of 11 million tons from 2001 to 2005 and more than 8 million tons from 2006 to 2010 and an increase of less than 6.7 million tons from 2011 to 2015. Taking into account environmental carrying capacity, feed resources, the harmonious development of man and nature and other factors, I predictFrom 2016 to 2020, China's meat production will increase by about 6 million tons. However, with the relaxation of China's foreign meat import trade, meat imports are expected to increase by about 4 million tons by 2020, and supply and demand will remain basically unchanged balance.
Although "artificial meat" can increase product diversity, it will not become the mainstream
Surging news: Some foreign companies and institutions are working on finding perfect alternatives to meat, such as "artificial meat" (vegetarian meat) made in plant protein that has been produced in quantities or pieces of meat grown directly from animal stem cells, and they think so The food is healthier and more environmentally friendly. Do you think it necessary to find these alternative foods?
Zhang Dequan:It involves living habits, personal preferences, religious beliefs, some people's misunderstanding of meat and meat products, and everyone has the right to choose their own favorite meat products, including artificial meat here. But anyone has to admit that in order to ensure the nutritional health of the human body, adequate and balanced protein must be ingested. Animal protein has a complete range of essential amino acids, a reasonable proportion and can be more easily digested, absorbed and utilized than the common plant protein , Nutritional value is relatively high, easy to meet the nutritional needs of the human body. Production of "artificial meat", to ensure a balanced and comprehensive nutrition, from a nutritional point of view must find a plant protein that can replace animal protein,Soy protein in plant protein The amino acid composition closest to animal protein, is a plant-based complete protein. Soy protein is currently the most common protein source for "artificial meat" (vegetarian meat). I think everybody has their own right to consume and choose. My attitude is neither to encourage nor to oppose, to give power to the consumers and to choose by the consumers themselves.
However, the plant protein has a narrow range of options to provide high quality, complete protein. Does it make "artificial meat" with real poultry meat taste and flavor? Consumers accept? Different consumers have different evaluation criteria and can not say which one is not good, which one should be encouraged, and which one is sure to destroy the environment and unsustainable development.
Everything is a balance. For example, grassland due to overgrazing caused by grassland degradation, desertification, after grazing ban, grazing, for a period of time is good for grassland restoration, but also found that if the ban has been banned, the grass on the part of grass president will become an advantage , But some of them have not grown up, but have deteriorated. This is the issue of the balance between grass and livestock. To this end, we should promote proper grazing and maintain biological diversity. So, I thinkCan not take eco-friendly as an excuse to pursue "artificial meat".
Surging news:From a nutritional point of view, plant protein such as soy protein, "artificial meat" can replace the traditional meat? This product in the Chinese market prospects?
Zhang Dequan:Soy protein, its amino acid ratio and structural properties closest to animal protein. But we eat more than just protein intake of meat, but also vitamins, minerals and other nutrients needed by the human body. If you simply use soy protein as "artificial meat", many nutrients will be missing, therefore,From the nutritional point of view to eat "artificial meat" can not be equated to eat poultry meat.
From the taste and flavor, each person's preferences are different. China's five thousand years of Chinese food civilization is not only for meat nutrition, but also for a culture, a pleasure and enjoyment. At present, the "artificial meat" made in the market can not yet replace the deliciousness and taste of meat products such as "braised pork" by 100%. From a technical point of view, the present can not be achieved texture, taste, flavor and poultry meat exactly the same, especially for bone products even more so, such as grilled steak, roast leg of lamb and so on. and soFrom the consumer preference and habits, I think the traditional livestock and poultry meat than the "artificial meat" have a greater advantage, and the two huge differences.
The vegetable protein "artificial meat" is a beneficial addition to the protein market, but it is not a substitute for meat products. I think each has its own market, strengths and characteristics. From the mainstream consumption of meat products, consumption of more than 80 million tons to 100 million tons of traditional livestock, poultry and meat products is still the main body of the consumer market.
Chilled meat 30 years later, chilled meat, Chinese traditional meat products is the trend of consumption
Surging news:On the nearly 100 million tons of meat, the future national spending habits will have any changes? Relevant food technology will have what development?
Zhang Dequan:Developed countries in Europe and the United States are not accustomed to eating frozen meat, the market circulation of more than 80% are zero to four degrees of cooling meat. In China, due to different economic levels, consumption habits and production methods, 70% of the national market is hot and cold meat. At present, China's consumption of chilled meat, pork can reach about 30%, beef and mutton less than 20%.
In the next 10 years, chilled meat will become the mainstream of development, but there are also some chilled consumption needs for some high-end products, especially for long-distance and long-shelf products. With the upgrading of consumption structure and supply-side structural reforms, the ice-temperature preservation technology that can meet the market consumption needs and escort for high-quality and long-term shelf-life will be gradually popularized and applied.
30 years later, China's meat consumer market should also be like the developed countries in Europe and the United States. The consumption of frozen meat in fresh meat will be substantially reduced. Cooling meat and chilled meat will become the mainstream.But now our country is still hot meat, frozen meat-based, frozen thawing technology will continue to be used in meat processing. Currently frozen thawing technology is mainly used in slaughtering and processing enterprises, the future, I think it will go into the homes of ordinary people. Like a refrigerator, there are refrigerators, freezers and fresh food rooms. In the future, a thawing room can be designed. When people go to work in the morning, they put the frozen meat into the thawing room and go home at noon or at night to get quality and frozen Thaw basically the same thawing meat.
Another trend isChinese traditional meat products will become a hot spot in global consumption. There are many traditional Chinese meat products with long history and unique flavor such as Jinhua ham, Beijing roast duck, Xinjiang chicken, Texas braised chicken, Hunan bacon, Pingyao beef and Ningxia grasping meat, but most of these meat products are mostly used Handmade workshop production, quality instability, quality and safety issues outstanding, high energy consumption, but with the breakthrough of traditional meat products intelligent green manufacturing technology and equipment, the traditional meat products will achieve industrial production, when the Chinese cuisine will be floating The world of incense will surely become a nutrition and health industry that will create billions of output value and benefit the world.
Surging news:You said the new frozen meat and cooling meat preservation technology specific to the quality of meat which?
Zhang Dequan:Frozen thawing is the consumer's home consumption or meat products processing enterprises involved in the production and processing of the process, the frozen meat thawed into the thawed meat, the traditional way of thawing is to thaw with water or placed in the air natural thawing. The biggest problem caused by these two methods of thawing is the loss of juice after thawing frozen meat. Statistics and analysis of test analysis found that the weight loss of frozen meat after thawing in more than 5%, high up to 10%. On the other hand, the loss of juice on the quality of meat is also very large, resulting in loss of flavor, quality and so on.
We are always looking for new thawing technology instead of conventional thawing technology, but also to reduce environmental pressure, such as hydrolytic freezing, resulting in water waste and pollution. These new technologies are also under study abroad, such as microwave thawing, but thaw uneven, while the thawed part of the meat matured, it is not fresh meat.
In the past ten years of research and development process we developed a low temperature and humidity variable temperature thawing technology, the technologyThawed meat and frozen meat quality before the same, thawing loss can be reduced to below 1%.
The core principle has two aspects. First, freezing is the process of freezing ice to form ice crystals. Thawing is the process of turning ice crystals into water. There are many ice crystal edges and corners, if unfreezing unfavorable way, the formation of ice crystals easily pierce cells and cause juice loss. If the muscle cells are intact, the juice can be held without direct outflow of the juice. Conventional thawing method is the input of heat from the outside, ice crystals repeatedly freeze-thaw more frequently, the destruction of cells is relatively large, more juice loss. Our defrosting method can sustain, slow and gently reduce and eliminate the ice crystal, and finally become liquid water, less damaging to the muscle cells, high muscle water holding capacity and less juice loss.
Second, why humidification? Because in the thawing process of protein and fat oxidation occurs, resulting in decreased quality of meat. High humidity environment can form a water film on the meat surface, isolated from the outside air, inhibit the oxidation of protein and fat, and finally thaw out the meat quality is better.
Cooling meat is the mainstream and trend of future market consumption. We found in the research processPreservation of fresh ice is better than cooling preservation. Preservation of ice temperature not only to maintain the quality of meat, but also inhibit the growth of microorganisms to extend the shelf life and increase the transport radius. For example, the freezing point of lamb is minus 1.5 degrees to 2.5 degrees below zero, the use of this temperature to save the lamb, the shelf life of up to 40 days to 45 days, and 0 degrees to 4 degrees shelf life of the cooling meat is generally 10 days to 15 days .
Surging news:What are the forefront of the future processing technology worth the wait?
Zhang Dequan:Forefront of meat and meat processing technology has the following five aspects.
First, according to the development concept of "innovation, coordination, greenness, openness and sharing", green manufacturing technologies should be developed to solve the problems of energy consumption, water consumption and labor consumption.For example, it is delicious to eat roast duck in Quanjude, but now the vacuum-baked or inflated roast duck is much poorer in taste and flavor than the roasted one, without the traditional flavor and taste, while the traditional roasting causes the pollution gas Large emissions, high energy consumption. In order to solve the above problems, we are currently studying far-infrared combined with steam baking, light wave combined with steam baking technology, which is a continuous high-efficiency, energy-saving, green manufacturing technology, the laboratory results show that the combination of far-infrared steam roasted The system of roast duck, its flavor, taste can reach the restaurant baked charcoal level.
The second is based on artificial intelligence, cloud computing, big data and Internet + and other technologies, the development of intelligent processing technology, the construction of unmanned factory, namely the meat industry 4.0.For example, slaughtering, slaughtering line now, there are many people dividing line, the future end of the entire raw materials inside the factory is livestock, poultry, the export side is processed products, the middle can not have a person. No one factory is also the future direction of development of the industry.
Third, personalized nutrition meat products targeted design and manufacturing technology.According to different gender, different regions, different ages, different occupational consumers personalized nutrition needs, designed for its meat nutritional formula, delivered to the data end. In the context of nutrition big data and cloud computing operations, personalized nutrition meat product data is delivered to smart factories for targeted production and distribution.
Fourth, meat and meat products industry-wide integration of industry-depth technology.In accordance with the nutrition guide consumer, consumer guide the concept of production, what the market needs, what the processing enterprises to produce, planting and breeding industry to provide what kind of raw materials, innovation set raw materials production, processing, food service integration of the whole industry chain technology to promote a Second and third industries in-depth integration.
Fifth, meat quality and group analysis technology.According to the differences of livestock and poultry genotypes, feeding conditions, growth environment, month-old and post-slaughter treatments, a meat quality whole-group analysis technique covering genomes, transcriptomes, metabolomes and proteomes was established to accurately evaluate meat at the molecular level Quality and nutrition, based on this timely adjustment of process parameters in the processing line, to produce delicious nutrition and safety of high-quality meat products.