Windows is everything
Windows originated from Apple's headquarters in Cupertino.
In 1981, Apple's Lisa computers had not yet been released, but Jobs had already started developing the next-generation computer Macintosh with a graphical interface. That year Microsoft was still a modest software development company. Given the cooperation of Apple II, Jobs found Bill · Gates, and wanted him to develop software for his system. Jobs portrayed the future of the graphical operating system for Gates — — a popular operating system, available to everyone. Gates was very excited.
After that, Gates frequented between Seattle and Cupertino, and he asked Jobs to show him the prototype of the Macintosh computer. Jobs's self-confidence in Macintosh will change the world. He is not shy about not only showing Gates the Macintosh computer and its excellent graphical interaction system, but also showing off his diligence and genius in front of Gates.
This may be the biggest mistake Steve Jobs made in the early years. He underestimated Bill & Middot; Gates. At one glance, Gates concluded that graphical interaction is the future of computers. He returned from Cupertino and he immediately opened a research and development project codenamed Interface Manager at the company. Two years later, the project was renamed Windows and officially opened to the public.
In 1985, Microsoft released Windows 1.0; five years later, after two large iterations, Windows 3.0 achieved great commercial success. It sold 2 million copies in six months, breaking all operating systems. Sales records. Since then, Microsoft has begun its empire.
The 1990s belonged to the era of PCs and operating systems. With the Windows 3.x series system and the later Windows 95 and Windows 98, Microsoft once occupied more than 90% of the market share of personal computers. In contrast, Apple, in the years when Microsoft had quietly emerged, was busy with the company's infighting and exhausted its strength. In 1984, Apple's board of directors "hurried" the founder Jobs, the company's product development capabilities will decline, in the next few years, Apple trapped in a closed environment in the personal computer market is open to Microsoft The fierce offensive was a thousand miles away.
It was Windows that allowed Bill · Gates to sit on the throne of the world's richest man. It was also Microsoft's main promoter of the world's most valuable company. Steady revenue made Microsoft and Gates feel at ease. "Windows is everything," which was an important argument within Microsoft at the time. It is said that in 1998, Microsoft had developed a touch screen electronic paper book, but Gates himself did not appreciate this product, because it "not like Windows".
"Windows is God, everything must be compatible with Windows", a former Microsoft executive said. Many people will express their dissatisfaction with Microsoft's internal innovation environment after leaving Microsoft. They think that Microsoft, with an increasing body size, is suffering from a "big company" disease and gradually loses its innovative atmosphere.
Looking back at the year 2000, it seems that Microsoft is not wrong with regard to Windows. When the Internet bubble burst at the beginning of this century, Microsoft relied on the support of Windows and Office for high-yielding support. In contrast, Yahoo, which was at its peak, was after the stock market turmoil. In the twinkling of the eye, it was overtaken by latecomers Google and Facebook.
However, because of the success of over-reliance on Windows, Microsoft began to despise Internet companies and missed the competition for search engine entrance. A few years later, Microsoft also lost in the battlefield of the browser. Many people attributed this to it. The second CEO took office in 2000, Steve · Ballmer.
Ballmer's "coma" ”
On October 25, 2001, 9 months after 9·11, at the Marquis Theatre at the Times Square in New York City, Microsoft released Windows XP, later known as its most successful operating system in history. This is the first Windows product that Ballmer released after he took office. Its success in the market has also contributed to Ballmer’s focus on the Windows product line. As for Silicon Valley's budding search engine and various Internet services, Ballmer dismissed.
After Windows XP, Ballmer devoted almost all of his energy to the development of Windows Vista. He hopes that Vista will become another epoch-making product of Microsoft and has many expectations. However, things are not so good: first, the team found that the high goal is almost impossible to achieve; after re-doing rediscovery, it was discovered that Vista was OEM at that time. The PC produced by the manufacturer is too "advanced". All this has made Vista from the date of listing a doomed one. A few years later, Ballmer, who is about to retire, recalls the period of development of Vista and regrets it: "This is probably my most regrettable thing when you organize a huge team to do something that eventually proves not too The big value thing, it will have side effects. ”
Ballmer and Gates are very different in personality. He is a more pure business man. He said that Microsoft was not unwilling to invest in search engines and criticized Google around 2000, but Ballmer was trying to make Microsoft's financial report more beautiful. ——Only Windows and Office are enough.
Until 2012, Ballmer was still convinced that Windows played a central role in Microsoft. At the CES show that year, Ballmer talked about the upcoming release of Windows 8. When asked about how Microsoft will take the next step, Ballmer replied, "In short, there is nothing more so than Microsoft at Microsoft. It's important. ”
Windows 8 brought Microsoft's biggest UI change in years. In order to adapt to the trend of mobility, Ballmer radically canceled the original Windows Start menu and replaced it with a Metro interface similar in style to Windows Phone. "Metro, Metro, Metro, of course, there are Windows, Windows, Windows. In 2012, Ballmer concluded.
However, too much change caused inconvenience to Windows users, coupled with compatibility and other issues, Windows 8 did not get much good results; the following year, Microsoft released Windows 8.1, for users to fill in the start button. From the kernel version number, this system is of equal importance to Windows 8. The timely remedy, together with Microsoft's cancellation of support for Windows XP, has allowed Windows 8.1 to gain much better market growth than Windows 8. By November 2014, the market share of Windows 8.1 was finally higher than the release of Windows XP fourteen years ago. However, it did not shake Windows 7's market share of more than 60%.
The market share of each version of Windows in 2014; Source: StatCounter
Many critics of Ballmer's term as inadequate will refer to Microsoft's absence in the mobile market. WindowsPhone had little help in the front of the Apple and Android camps. In 2013, Ballmer, an ailing doctor, followed Google’s acquisition of Motorola and acquired Nokia’s mobile phone division for a high price of US$7.17 billion. He hopes to integrate Nokia’s hardware capabilities and expand the market share of Windows Phone to seek a foothold in the mobile era.
In hindsight, this is Ballmer's in office. "The last coup", his successor, Nadella, shortly after taking office, sentenced the acquisition to failure. With regard to the Windows operating system and smart phones, Nadella clearly had different opinions.
Nadella's " refresh ”
Satya · Nadella worked in the Windows and Office departments, and later personally created Microsoft's Bing search, before he took over the CEO, he just made Microsoft's cloud computing service Azure to create a lot of revenue Business. It is worth mentioning that let Nadella lead the Bing team, and later develop cloud services Azure, these appointments are Steve & middot; Ballmer's idea.
After taking office, Nadella issued a public memo, in which he mentioned his own views and plans for the future of Microsoft. "In this 3000-word article, Nadella raised Windows 10 times, but before he reached the 21st, he already said 21 cloud (cloud services). " Bloomberg commented.
Nadella saw early on that the place where Microsoft really can play is in the enterprise market. Immediately after he took office, he proposed the "mobile first, cloud first" strategy, focusing on cloud computing services Azure cloud computing services, while stressing the role of Microsoft as a software company in the mobile era. As mentioned above, Nadella announced the failure of the Nokia acquisition attempt soon after taking office, but he is not prepared to abandon the mobile market. Nadella developed mobile apps for Apple and Android. In 2015, at the iPad conference, Apple even invited the person in charge of Office to demonstrate the productivity of iPad. The reconciliation of the former enemy of the enemy has mostly benefited from the preference for Nadella.
At the second year of his tenure, Nadella changed the mission of Microsoft. In the 1980s, Bill ·Gates proposed that "every family has a computer on every desk" as the company's mission, and the company's mission has never changed since then. Everything is also out of this mission. But Nadella believes that it has become almost a reality and is inconsistent with Microsoft's current goals. Past missions are often tangled with current jobs and often confuse Microsoft employees.
"Empowering everyone and every organization on Earth to help them achieve more achievements." "This is Nadera's updated corporate mission in 2015. He hopes that Microsoft will not be immersed in the past."
In Nadella's idea, Microsoft's symbolic Windows also needs "transition" to adapt to new market demands. In the Windows 10 release in 2015, Nadella's concept has been well applied: Windows 10 is a kind of application. Services instead of operating systems. "Our operating system is not designed for a device. Even when I think about Windows 10, our understanding of the concept is an operating system for cross-device users, so I think it is a service." ” Nadella said. When Windows 10 was released in 2015, Microsoft announced that Windows 10 will be the last version of Windows. In order to keep up with users' needs, Microsoft is making important updates to Windows 10 once a year and twice.
Service is an empowered product. This precisely reflects Nadella's goal of "refreshing" after Microsoft's eyes. At the end of March 2018, Nadella issued a memorandum, which announced the company's major restructuring of the organization. He said that the original Windows WDG (Windows and Devices Business Unit) will be split into the "experience and equipment" and "Cloud computing and artificial intelligence platform" two departments, also responsible for WDG executive vice president Terry Myerson will leave.
This "" restructuring "is considered a landmark adjustment within Microsoft, Windows is no longer a separate side, downgraded from the main line of business to the sub-department, announced that Microsoft officially transformed from a software company operating a major operating system to cloud computing services and AI is a company-wide enterprise service company. In the 43 years since its founding and 33 years after the birth of Windows, Microsoft has finally taken a big step forward from facing ordinary consumers to empowering enterprises.
In September last year, Satya & middot; Nadella published a new book, "Hit Refresh", about the process he had taken to lead Microsoft's transition in three years. The company's dry goods managed by the company have received a lot of praise, but many people think that it was too early for Nadella to write books just three years ago.
But today, for the future of Microsoft, Nadella has long since achieved his promise. “Refresh” is like an oath, and the “Restructuring” just in the past is like a ritual. After the foreplay, Nadella, who had personally experienced the peak of the 1990s, was eager to take Microsoft to the next peak.