What happened exactly two years ago? Lenovo's approach from the business perspective, from the "big picture" aspect, whether there is a problem?
Sohu Technology combed the original meeting records of the two key meetings. From these highly professional English records, the company extracted all the incidents and reconstructed all the measures that Lenovo had established when the 5G standard was established in 2016.
First of all, these are the backgrounds that you should know
3GPP: Game Fields Set by the 5G Standard
Because of this paradox, our initial impression of 3GPP now is "a regulatory body for a 5G standard."
In fact, 3GPP is a standardization organization established in December 1998, and “internationalization” has become a very crucial part of it. Wikipedia describes its current members including European ETSI, Japan’s ARIB and TTC, and China’s CCSA, Korea's TTA, North America's ATIS, and India's telecommunications standardsDevelopmentassociation.
Dr. Wan Lei, Director of Huawei's Wireless Network Standards Patent Department, once commented: “Technology has no borders. The success of 3GPP is due to its internationalization. Its Roman Forum-style technical debate is to promote technological optimization and perfection. The core mechanism. I sincerely wish that the global democratic spirit of 3GPP will go back to ancient times..."
Every meeting of 3GPP has detailed records available for public inquiries. It is not difficult to find out from detailed records that the standard setting process is full of discussions and negotiations. Although it is a democratic consultation, the process of each debate is an outcry of the interest parties. Fortunately, 3GPP provides a platform for objective democracy.
This has also become the basic material for us to sort out the meetings that took place two years ago.
Simple understanding of the 5G standard and three encodings
The 5G standard is simply divided into 3 major scenarios. The highest commercial value scenario is eMBB, namely 3D/Ultra HDvideoSuch large-volume mobile broadband services can be roughly understood as an upgrade under our current 4G network usage scenario.
eMBB scenarioDivided into control channels and data channels, there are long codes and short codes in the encoding method.
At the 3GPP conference in August 2016, a total of three encodings were proposed:
LDPC, the main push of some US companies led by Qualcomm
Polar - Huawei-led
Turbo2.0 - LG dominates
Many netizens simply summed up as "Qualcomm's L code, Huawei's P code", but such crude induction is wrong.
The Polar code does not belong to Huawei. The earliest Polar code was proposed by Professor E. Arikan of the University of Beerkin in Turkey in 2007. In 2009, it began to attract attention in the communications field.
However, according to the description of Taiwan media, Huawei occupied more than 70% of core patents of Polar code at the time, so Huawei pushed Polar code.
Similarly, LDPC codes do not belong to Qualcomm. LDPC codes were proposed by Robert Gallager, a professor at MIT, in 1962.
Under the leadership of both parties, both programs have extensive partners on a global scale, and even many partners do not “put eggs in the same basket”. Huawei 3GPP participants said that even if the LDPC code Huawei has reserves, "noisy, noisy, it is impossible for a person to eat alone."
The Huawei representative even emphasizedHow each party chooses to "stand in line" is more of a business consideration: "Either LDPC codes or polarized codes are not Huawei's first mentioned technology. Therefore, which technology solution is ultimately chosen has nothing to do with national or national pride. This is still a purely interest issue. We cannot say that Huawei's plan is different from China's. The company should support it."
reduction:Two meetings and three polls
If we want to rationalize this discussion of Lenovo's 5G voting events, we need to clearly understand that the standard setting involved in these votings is actually divided into two levels. The first level is the adoption of the control channels and data channels. The second level is The long code and short code plan is adopted. The determination of these programs was determined by the fact that all members in the three rounds of voting in the two meetings made a game compromise between each other.
This happened twice in two meetings in 2016. They were 3GPP RAN1 held in Lisbon, Portugal from October 10-15, 2016.86b meetings”, and “3GPP RAN1” opened in the United States on November 14-1887 meetings".
We sort it out in turn.
Most Controversial Voting: 86bth Meeting
Regarding the data channel coding scheme, one issue was explicitly mentioned in the records of the 86b meeting -What is the need for several 5G data encoding schemes?Due to the fact that the parties are competing with each other, a total of four options were proposed for discussion.
1, all using LDPC
2, all using Polar
3, using turbo + LDPC
4, using LDPC+Polar
The main technical discussion at the time was that the turbo technology lags behind LDPC and Polar and is therefore marginalized.LDPC and Polar have advantages over each other, but LDPC performs well on long codes.
This is why Huawei and Hess, who only use the Polar code, are the only ones, and Chinese manufacturers including ZTE, OPPO, Xiaomi and Nubia have all chosen to support LDPC+Polar.
This vote was constantly read in the recent discussions. Even if Lenovo and Huawei both issued statements, they were still caught in a bite.Because in this ballot, Lenovo and its Motorola mobile chose to support the LDPC program, but did not support the L+P program.
However, it needs to be emphasized that the voting rights of various manufacturers in 3GPP are weighted, rather than the one manufacturer's one vote that is rumored. Lenovo and Motorola Mobile's weight is not high, but it can't control the results.
At the same time, according to interviews with relevant industry sources, from a technical perspective, the use of long-code LDPC solutions is basically a foregone conclusion.
The final result of this vote is thatThe LDPC is selected as the data channel of the long-coded scheme eMBB scenario of the data channel of the 5G eMBB scenario;The short code solution is undecided and it is selected from Polar, LDPC and Turbo.
Therefore, the fact that Lenovo did not invest in Huawei as the cause of Huawei's defeat of the data channel coding scheme is not valid. The result of Lenovo's voting is the establishment of a long-code solution. At this point in time, the Huawei-dominated Polar solution is not yet complete. Out.
However, after constant clarification of the facts, some people turned to question the reason why Lenovo's long-code solution did not invest in Huawei. According to the industry’s position,LDPC is recognized as dominant at the technical level.Even Chinese manufacturers such as ZTE and Coolpad who invested in the L+P program still recognize the future applications of LDPC in long codes.
Huawei's Polar solution lost the short code encoding scheme, but this time Lenovo voted Huawei
At the 87th meeting, this meeting focused on resolving the legacy issues of the 86bth meeting, that is, the identification of short codes in the coding scheme and the selection of control channels.
The first is the determination of the short code coding scheme. According to the official 3GPP conference record, a total of two WFs in this field proposed the inclusion of the Polar code into the coding scheme.From the record of supporters, Lenovo and Motorola Mobile have provided support.
Therefore, it is also unreliable that Lenovo did not support Huawei's Polar coding scheme.
However, LDPC finally locked the coding scheme including short codes, because the heavyweight manufacturers including Qualcomm, Nokia, Samsung, LG, and Intel all clearly opposed the coding scheme of incorporating Polar codes into data channels.
At the same time, as shown in the following figure, the proposal of Qualcomm-led LDPC as the only encoding scheme has been supported by higher-weight manufacturers, so the Polar code eventually lost.
High light moment of Polar code: Lock 5G control channel
In the same conference, the Polar code that is over-ridden by the LDPC code in the data channel leaves only the possibility of a control channel. This competition also demonstrated unprecedented consistency among Chinese manufacturers.In this key vote, Lenovo explicitly voted for Huawei.
Since Polar's own reliability is even more dominant, plus the solidarity of Chinese manufacturers and allies, the Polar program eventually became the standard for 5G control channels.
At this point, Sohu Technology combed two conferences in 2016 and restored several key votes that Lenovo had made at the time when the 5G standard was established.
In addition to voting on long-code solutions for data channels, Lenovo chose to support the Huawei-dominated Polar solution because of the technical advantages of LDPC codes, such as the selection of high-pass video and the voting of short codes and control channels.
Huawei and Lenovo issued a statement that 5G needs cooperation, but technology should not be kidnapped
Two years ago, after the 5G vote, Rashomon, was skillfully moved to the table two years later, Lenovo and Huawei's two “parties” also came together after the media’s fermentation.
Lenovo issued a statement emphasizing Lenovo’s voting on the Polar program for the 5G standard, including Motorola’s Motorola mobile, which voted in favor. This view was later confirmed by Huawei, which looks "losing".
Huawei China’s official Weibo also interacts with Lenovo on Weibo, and it has been stated that the Polar program can become a 5G international standard, which is the result of the joint efforts of Chinese companies.
The two parties said that they are joining hands together because the current moment is at a crucial moment in the development of 5G.According to the plan, the 3GPP R15 standard will be completed in June of this year.Under the background of the Sino-US trade friction, 5G has always been considered as a major focus of the Sino-American game. At this time, it cannot be disorganized.
Huawei stated in its statement: "Mobile communications is an open industry and all parties in the industry need to work together. Huawei has always been committed to working with industry partners to jointly create global standards and build an open, innovative and healthy ecological environment."
Lenovo responded that it will cooperate extensively with Huawei and related domestic companies to help the 5G industry thrive. The process of formulating the 5G industry standard is full of game and compromise, all require Chinese companies and partners to go forward together.
On the other hand, public opinion on the popularity of Lenovo's 5G voting reflects the current high expectations of the public for China's breakthrough in 5G technology. However, just as Polar Code has obtained control channels, someone has shouted the irrational slogan of “Technology Leading, Rolling Qualcomm,” which is not really conducive to the promotion of technology and the development of the industry.
Huawei 3GPP participants said that in the context of the possible outbreak of trade war between China and the United States, it is easy for Huawei Qualcomm and the Chinese company to show off their emotions. However, it is hoped that everyone will remain rational and "use a pan-political vision to understand There is no reason in itself."
Sohu Technology Lu Linxuan