On June 14, 2018, 3GPP officially approved the fifth-generation mobile communication (5G) independent networking standard freeze, which means that 5G completed the first phase of full-featured standardization.
The R15 standard identified this time is the first phase full-featured version, including non-independent networking (NSA) and independent networking (SA). The non-independent networking standard was completed in December 2017 and frozen in March 2018. . The freezing of the independent networking standard marks the completion of the 5G first commercial standard R15.
What is the 5G Phase 1 standard? How long is it from the final standard?
According to the 3GPP network standard development process announced by 3GPP, the 5G network standard is completed in two phases:
The first phase starts with R15 as the 5G standard, which was completed in June 2018. This phase completes the 5G standard (SA) of independent networking, supports enhanced mobile broadband and low latency high reliability Internet of Things, and completes the network interface protocol. This is what we call the first stage standard or the first version of the standard.
The second phase starts R16 as the 5G standard and is expected to be completed in December 2019, which will complete the complete 5G standard that meets all ITU (International Telecommunications Union) requirements.
At present, 3GPP is discussing the content of the R16 standard. R16 can be regarded as the final version of the 5G standard. After it is completed and frozen, 5G will be fully commercialized. The estimated time is March 2020, and the 5G standard formed at that time is complete. 5G standard.
Regarding the two versions of R15 and R16 mentioned above, R15 focuses on the requirements of enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) and low latency high reliability (URLLC) applications, which are divided into two sub-phases, the first sub-phase 5G NR (New Radio) Non-independent networking features were completed in December 2017 and frozen in March 2018; the second sub-phase 5G NR independent networking standard was completed in June 2018 and frozen in September.
The development of the 5G NR independent networking standard means that the deployment standard of the 5G network has been perfected, which will lead the industry to realize the commercialization of 5G communication and serve as the core infrastructure for the fourth industrial revolution in the future. As the 5G first-phase international standard, R15 can realize all the new features of 5G, and it is beneficial to play the full 5G capability. It is a 5G standard that can be truly commercialized, and has certain synergy with the 5G final R16 standard.
How does 3GPP develop a 5G standard?
3GPP is currently workingDevelopmentThe organization of 5G communication standard technology, its full name is called 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), the international communication industry standardization organization, and more than 550 companies participate as member companies. It consists of 16 working groups responsible for developing standard specifications for end-to-end technologies for terminals, base stations and systems. As can be seen from the naming, the organization was founded in the 3G era. In 1998, several telecom standards organization partners signed the “3rd Generation Partnership Program Agreement” and formulated global applicable technical specifications and technical reports for the 3G era. Since then, 3GPP has continued into the 4G era, and then to the 5G era.
The right to speak of 3GPP is determined according to the contribution of the company's history to the organization. Several major equipment vendors, Qualcomm and Intel have greater voices, and they will serve as the chairman and vice-chairman of the group. Currently, large communication equipment vendors also includeHuawei, ZTE, Nokia, Ericsson, etc.
China's Wireless Communications Standards Research Group joined 3GPP in 1999. Subsequently, with the development of Chinese manufacturers and operators, China's position in it has become increasingly important. According to the data, there are dozens of enterprises or institutions in China that have become partners of 3GP P, including equipment vendors Huawei, ZTE, Datang, Putian, Xinwei, chip makers Haisi, Spreadtrum, etc., mobile phone manufacturers VIVO, OPPO, Nubi Asia, Cool, Xiaomi, operators China Mobile, China Unicom, China Telecom, and China Xintong Institute.
The way 3GPP works is to achieve consensus. Whether a proposal can be passed does not depend on how many companies agree, but only because no company objects. Therefore, the negative is very important. Based on the patent reserves and interests of each manufacturer, each proposal initially has many companies opposing it. The proposal can rarely be passed untouched. Therefore, many proposals need to be left in the next meeting. discuss. It is also necessary to constantly negate and amend some proposals in order to achieve the final unanimous adoption of companies with greater discourse power.
As an international standardization organization that promotes the 5G standard, most of the members of 3GPP are composed of professional associations and enterprises. Global enterprises can apply for membership. It promotes the technical standards reached by industry, enterprises and experts. The 5G technical standard is determined by the 3GPP and is also certified by the ITU International Telecommunications Union. The adoption of the ITU, to some extent equivalent to the “seal”, the recognition of a standard program is recognized as the final official result, which also means the formal determination of this international standard.
China's rise in the 5G era
The contest of the 5G standard lies in the channel coding battle. Previously, there were three coding schemes of Turbo code, LDPC code and Polar code. Among them, the LDPC codes pushed by US carriers and enterprises defeated the other two schemes and were adopted as 5G eMBB scenes. Data channel coding for the data channel.
Subsequently, Huawei and other Chinese communications companies pushed the Polar code to regain a game on the 5G core standard and became the control channel coding scheme for the 5G eMBB scenario. This resolution was adopted at the 3GPP conference in November 2016, which also triggered many good voices. . There are even domestic media saying: "Huawei won 5G!" In fact, no one has won this, and the Polar code is not Huawei's. Huawei is only the main researcher of Polar code and has a leading position. Commercial products can be launched on this basis faster, and 5G facilities can be laid out.
The eMBB scene is just one of the 5G applications. The three major 5G scenarios defined by 3GPP include: eMBB, mMTC, and URLLC. eMBB corresponds to 3D/Ultra HDvideoFor large-volume mobile broadband services, mMTC corresponds to large-scale IoT services, while URLLC corresponds to services such as driverless, industrial automation that require low latency and high reliability.
In the 5G eMBB scenario, Polar becomes the signaling channel coding scheme, and LDPC becomes the data channel coding scheme. Everyone is equally divided. Strictly speaking, no one is dominant.
However, the victory of the Polar code has broken the monopoly of communication technology in Europe and the United States, especially American companies. It reflects that China Communications has been recognized internationally and its status has been improved. It has been very different from the 3G and 4G eras. In the 3G and 4G eras, although China dominated the TD-SCDMA and TD-LTE standards, there is actually not much voice in the real world. Polar becomes the control channel coding is China's first breakthrough in the channel coding field, and also strives for China's 5G standard. More voices in the past have laid the foundation.
Overall, the industry generally believes that the United States, China and the European Union are currently important forces to promote 5G and 5G standards. China has become one of the important players in the promotion of 5G and the establishment of international standards.
From the perspective of the future 5G architecture speed, popularization speed and overall market development capability, Chinese enterprises can undoubtedly and have already taken the lead in the world. At present, the 3D/Ultra HD video corresponding to the eMBB scene has entered the service projects of operators and communication companies. The 5G commercial pilot has also been launched in the first-tier cities. 5G is a major opportunity for Chinese and Chinese companies. When each of us uses 5G, it may be the time to really see the level.