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Simply put, the so-called "5G voting event" is a systematic public opinion attack.The attacker repeatedly distorted/fabricated and blocked the information in the 86, 86b, and 87 meetings of the 3GPP organization in 2016. With the public opinion environment of Sino-US trade friction in 2018, a Lenovo was created out of thin air to help Qualcomm win 5G with a key vote. Standards, rumors of betrayal of national interests.
What information has been tampered with and forced to ignore?
1. FictionalNon-existent voteFictional oneFake voting ruleForcibly ignore the rules of the meeting that are open on the 3GPP official website;
2, suggesting that the Polar code* represents the national standard,Forcibly disregarded Datang Telecom (13.370, -0.32, -2.34%) representing several national standardsThe initial actual camp;
3, suggesting that LDPC code * is Qualcomm dominant, forcibly ignoredThe fact that most basic patents of LDPC codes have expiredForcibly ignored the company including Huawei.A large number of Chinese companies hold many LDPC code patentsAnd the benefit of the situation;
4,The reason why the Polar code was lost to the LDPC codeForced to ignore the 86b meetingHuawei's proposal to use Polar code as the unique encoding of the data channelNot supported by any vendor(including Huawei terminals and Hisilicon)Case.
The following is a detailed interpretation:
Fictional 5G voting
To fully understand this series of 2016 conferences, we need to understand the historical background and the 3GPP operating rules to a certain extent.
Founded in December 1998, 3GPP's initial work scope is to develop globally applicable technical specifications and technical reports for third-generation mobile communication systems.
The operating rules of this organization are very simple. The public statement is called consensus promotion, that is, everyone first discusses, then everyone declares that the weak side compromises.The final decision will be made only if the weak party is really unwilling to compromise and the two or more working group meetings are stalled. The method of voting is anonymous, and the winning standard is 71% support.
*3GPP official website screenshot, click on the text to read the original text visible full text translation
Original link: http://www.3gpp.org/wiki/index.php?title=Working%20Culture&lang=en
When you see this, most people will be confused. If it is an anonymous vote, why are the voting information about 86, 86b, and 87 meetings all over the sky? If it is 71% support, why is Lenovo likely to sell the country in the case of half of the votes? The conclusion is simple,Because from the beginning to the end, 3GPP has almost never decided to rely on voting to determine technical standards.,These three 5G conferences have never had a meaningful vote from beginning to end, only discussion.
In the face of this basic common sense, many media and so-called professionals chose to ignore and force the use of "voting" for interpretation and discussion.Successfully compiled more than half of the timeNew rules.
Any statement about the 5G vote is itself a rumor, because from the beginning to the end, there has never been a vote.
In all the discussions about the 5G standard storm, whether it is a forum or know, whether it is a media, a network media or a self-media, almost one company is neglected in a hundred percent ratio -Institute of Telecommunications Science and Technology (CATT)In the communications industry, this company is unknown, because it is the parent company of Datang Telecom Technology Co., Ltd.
*86 meetings, Turbo code proposal screen capture
In 86 meetings,The Institute of Telecommunications Science and Technology (CATT) and LG and Ericsson support the Turbo code.Instead of the LDPC code or Polar code in dispute, why are Datang being ignored in many articles? The reason is simple, because Datang’s choice of Turbo code can prove one thing –The Chinese government does not presuppose the position to support the Polar code.
Different from the cognition of many young people, as early as 20 years ago, China's government-led 3G communication standard TD-SCDMA was recognized on 3GPP and became one of the three major 3G standards in the world.China has the ability to formulate technical standards in international competitionAnd TD-SCDMA isTelecommunications Science and Technology Research Institute(Datang Telecom) proposed to 3GPP.
In the 4G era, Datang Telecom also played an important role in the subsequent development of TD-SCDMA. At the 3GPP conference held in France in June 2005, Datang Telecom was the leader, and the domestic manufacturers were combined to propose a scheme based on OFDM-based TDD evolution mode. In November of the same year, the 3GPP working group meeting held in Seoul was passed.Datang Telecom leadsProposed TD-LTE technology for TD-SCDMA subsequent evolution.
Obviously,If the country is interested in promoting a certain standard, the national team in the 3G and 4G eras cannot be ignorant of Datang Telecom.The rumors want to link the Polar code with the national interest, and Datang Telecom did not support the Polar code at the beginning. Only when Datang “disappears” will it be questioned.
Interestingly,Datang Telecom actually disappeared in public opinion.Thus, a discussion of 5G technology in 2016, in the context of trade friction in 2018, really changed into a dispute between the two countries of China's Polar code standard and the US LDPC code.
According to legend, Hu Shi once said: "History is a little girl dressed up." The real source of this sentence is hard to find, but how history is dressed up, we have seen a living case.
Since 2018, in almost all related articles, LDPC codes have been considered as technical solutions for Qualcomm control. In fact, the LDPC code scheme for the 86 meetings was indeed led by Qualcomm.But in the most intense discussion of 86b and the 87 meetings that ended up, the LDPC code camp’s lead sponsor was not Qualcomm, but Samsung..
*86b meeting R1-1610767 proposal screen capture
*87 meetings R1-1613342 proposal screen capture
Why does Samsung actively promote LDPC codes? Does Samsung like to pay patent fees to Gaotong? Of course not, because the LDPC code is not Qualcomm!From the perspective of the number of patents, Samsung is far superior to Qualcomm.Before 2018, the LDPC code became the 5G data channel standard, and was once considered a mega failure of Qualcomm.
The reason is very simple. In the world, in the communications industry, there has never been a saying of "Qualcomm's LDPC". The LDPC code was invented by Dr. Robert Gallager in the United States in 1963 and is one of the best data transmission codes in the world. .
today'sChina National SatelliteTVBroadcasting system(ABS-S),China National Terrestrial Digital Video Broadcasting System(DTMB),China Mobile Multimedia Broadcastingsystem(CMMB); fixed access network: ITU-T high-speed home wired network (G.hn); wireless access network: IEEE 802.11n, 802.11ac, 802.16e (WiMAX), etc., their channel coding all use LDPC code. In other words, the WiFi you are using now uses LDPC encoding.
The core reason why LDPC codes are favored is not only easy to use, but another reason is cheap, LDPC codeA large number of basic patents have expired, and some derivative patents are on the verge of expiration.(The patent protection period is generally 20 years), so many communication companies have carried out a lot of research and development work on LDPC codes.
*Source: "Analysis of Chinese Patent Application Data in the Field of LDPC Codec"
Author: Sun Lei, "China Intellectual Property News" link to see the end of the text
In the 2015 report of China Intellectual Property News, it was written as follows:
At present, patent applicants in the field of LDPC codec are mainly concentrated in China, South Korea, Japan, the United States and other countries and regions.Among them, China’s patent application ranks firstFor 595 cases, the applicants are mainly concentrated in enterprises, universities and research institutes. This shows that the country has strong R&D strength and innovation ability in this technology field, especially some enterprises already have a certain number of patent applications. The number of patent applications in Korea, Japan, and the United States was 279, 269, and 268, respectively, and these three countries also have certain advantages in this technology field.
According to the article,Huawei as early as 2001I started the patent application for the LDPC code, and by 2015,Samsung ranked first with 216 LDPC patent applications, Qualcomm ranked fourth with 57 patent applications, and Huawei ranked fifth with 51 patent applications.
Image source: Google camera keyword search results
On the Google patent search tool Google Patents, we can query the latest data. With LDPC as the key word, you can see that the patent assignee list ranks first in Broadcom.Samsung second,Qualcomm FifthWith LDPC code as the key word, it isSamsung first, Broadcom second,Qualcomm did not enter the top ten.
Obviously,Supporting LDPC codes does not mean supporting Qualcomm. Companies that are subject to Qualcomm's patent exploitation in the 3G/4G era will not choose Qualcomm's LDPC.
Before 2016, all Chinese media regarded the LDPC code as a magic weapon for Chinese companies to come first. After 2018,LDPC code was forcibly bundled overnight by creator into Qualcomm's property.
Of course, after reading the above three parts, we all know thatFirst of all, there is no such thing as voting. Polar code has never been a technology promoted by the Chinese government. Even the relationship between LDPC code and Qualcomm is not close enough.So what exactly is the Polar code?
Source: China Intellectual Property Magazine Online Edition
Let us look at a Polar code patent analysis and publicity release issued by major media on September 7, 2018. According to the weight analysis of the press release, Huawei is the first, Ericsson is the second, InterDigital is the third (the Qualcomm is from this year). The company acquired the CDMA patent and became a communications giant.Qualcomm fourth.
Wait a minute... Is Qualcomm's influence on the Polar code higher than it is in the LDPC code?If LDPC code is supported to support Qualcomm, then support for Polar code does not absolutely support Qualcomm?
In fact, this is not surprising. The Polar code invented by the Turkish professor in 2008 will not expire in the entire 5G life cycle.To pay royaltiesAt the same time, Polar code does not have long-term technical verification in many areas without LDPC code (WiFi is not easy to use?), so many manufacturers naturally support Polar code is not as high as LDPC code.
But it does not mean that these companies, including Qualcomm, have not studied Polar code. No matter whether Huawei, Qualcomm or Ericsson and Samsung, they hold a large number of Polar code patents.Chinese companies outside Huawei have not invested too much in Polar codes..
Huawei's investment in LDPC code is huge, but it is not the strongest. Huawei's investment in Polar code is huge, and it is the strongest. The Polar code represents not the national interest, nor the overall interests of the Chinese manufacturers, but the interests of many companies on the Polar code.The biggest gain is Huawei..
Real discussion process
When all the background information is clear, we will see three more technical discussions, which is much clearer.
Three discussions actually discussed two standards, one is the data channel standard, and the other is the control channel standard.The former is more important, the latter is less important.
The most popular natural product is the LDPC code. As mentioned above, it has been tested for many years, and the effect is good enough. A large number of core patents and derivative patents have already expired, and Chinese and foreign companies prefer LDPC codes.
The Polar code giants have patents, but the investment is not as good as Huawei's, so Huawei hopes to include it in the standard, and the giants can accept it, but do not want the Polar code to be too high.
86 meetings in Gothenburg, Sweden
LDPC code supporters (Samsung, Nokia, Shanghai Bell, Intel, China Putian, ZTE, Sony, VIVO,Millet, Beijing Xinwei, South Korea KT, etc.);
Polar code supporters have high gold content (three major Chinese operators, France Telecom, Vodafone, Telecom Italia, etc.);
The number and quality of Turbo code supporters are generally (LG, Datang, Ericsson, NEC, etc.).
Lenovo did not express its position at this meeting.
Conclusion of the meeting:No results, the eMBB data channel coding scheme will be selected in 86b conferences.
There are 1 key points:All three camps have Chinese companies involved, and 3G and 4G China Standard Leading Enterprise Datang Telecom supports Turbo codes.
86b times Lisbon, Portugalmeeting
The discussion of eMBB data channel coding began. Samsung led the company to support LDPC codes as the only solution with Qualcomm, Nokia, Shanghai Bell, Asus and other companies. Lenovo officially supported LDPC codes based on technical reliability, price and self-accumulation. Huawei has joined forces with a number of vendor proposals, requiring Polar code to become part of the standard (not clear whether it is exclusive and scope of application).
Some manufacturers of ZTE jointly organized a round of proposals, first of all, in the case of choosing a code, the two programs stated:
1, only use LDPCCode: Obtained support from Samsung, Sony, Lenovo, Intel, etc. Qualcomm did not express its position.
2,Only use Polar code: only Huawei supports.
Then, the meeting put forward a statement on the hybrid scheme, which is divided into two schemes: LDPC code + Turbo code (ie L+T) and LDPC code + Polar code (ie L+P).
The meeting reached a preliminary consensus that the Polar code does not have the ability to compete for the full data channel with the LDPC code, and the option to use only the Polar code is excluded. The conference also discussed the L+T and L+P schemes in both long and short codes.
In order to reach consensus faster, the meeting began to oppose the three LDPC, L+P, and L+T programs. All three programs have a large number of objections, and the meeting is still unable to reach a consensus.
Conclusion of the meeting:As the long code of the data channel, the LDPC code has won the consensus of all parties. Whether the short code uses LDPC code, Polar code or Turbo code, and has not reached a conclusion, will be discussed again at 87 meetings.
*86b meeting R1-1610607 proposal screen capture
There are two main points:
1. Huawei's data channel full Polar code proposal is unsupported.Huawei's most Huawei-based terminals and Hisilicon Semiconductor do not support Huawei and LDPC code positive hard.
2,In addition to the proposal of Samsung to participate in the LDPC code, Qualcomm has not made a statement in the follow-up. The side proves that the relationship between LDPC code and Qualcomm is far less close.
87 times the Reno conference in Nevada, USA
Huawei proposed LDPC+Polar as the encoding scheme for the eMBB data channel.After communicating with Lenovo, Lenovo also joined the camp, supporting 56 companies.Due to the clear opposition of 14 companies including Ericsson, Qualcomm, Shanghai Bell, Nokia, Samsung, LG, KT and Intel, no consensus was reached.
The Huawei camp retired to choose the main control channel. The conference began to discuss the control channel. Huawei and a large number of vendors proposed to support the Polar code as the control channel standard. LG and Qualcomm and other companies proposed to support the TBCC code as the control channel standard. Failure to form a consensus.
After several rounds of proposals by operators, Vodafone (lead), China Mobile, Ericsson, Deutsche Telekom TELUS, Bell Mobile, China Unicom (6.030, -0.06, -0.99%), China Telecom jointly proposed to use flexible – LDPC (f-LDPC) is the unique encoding of the data channel, and it is not excluded to add other encoding methods. Polar is the only code for the control channel.
The conference reached a consensus.
The conference concluded that the eMBB data channel coding uses an LDPC code and the control channel coding uses a Polar code.
There are 1 key points:A total of 56 vendors supported Huawei's data channel LDPC+Polar solution. The number of supporters was much higher than that of the pure LDPC code scheme, and it failed again. It once again proved that “voting” did not exist.
Why are we no longer restrained?
It can be clearly stated that in the three 5G discussions in 2016,Lenovo is like other Chinese companiesBased on technical reliability, price and accumulation of own technology, the initial choice was made. After Huawei communicated, it fully supported the Polar code. Both Lenovo and Huawei have made a series of choices for technical considerations and commercial interests.
As for the Lenovo 5G voting country, it may be the most subtle lie that Chinese netizens have seen. There is no understanding of technology, it is impossible to choose a meeting that is so unfamiliar to the public as a material; without a certain information coverage capability, it is impossible for many media to naturally quote problematic materials and give up looking for first-hand information; without superb trading ability, no It may be a subtle choice of the time of the trade war to detonate; without the deliberate misleading and filthy of those behind the scenes, it is impossible to distort so many public facts.
All kinds of means can be described as good intentions, but the magic is wonderful, it is not magic, the lie is subtle, not history, and there are no secrets to reveal the key points.
We have long been able to make a thorough response. If we are in 2016 or 2017, we can directly give the voting rules page of the 3GPP official website, and it is fundamentally clear that there is no such thing as voting.
However, under the background of Sino-US trade frictions, ZTE was banned and sanctioned by the United States. American operators abandoned Huawei products for political reasons. In order to avoid the uncontrollable impact of the enlargement and pan-politicization of this matter,We chose the most restrained coping style at the time.
However, the rumors have intensified, and our employees, family members and dealers have been insulted countless times, and the brand image accumulated over the past decades has been seriously affected. Still every daya large number of overseas accountsIn the case of attacking Lenovo, we believe that it is time to make it clear.
Since May 2018, rumors have been scaled up and systematically revolved around Lenovo. I believe that the 5G incident will not beUnknown forcesFor Lenovo's last rumor, but this will be Lenovo's last forbearing response.
Reference link in the article:
1. Polar code: A new communication coding method first proposed by Professor Erdal Arikan of Turkey in 2008.
2. LDPC code: widely used in Wifi, satellite, television broadcast signal transmission, first proposed by Dr. Robert Gallager in the United States in 1963.
3. 3GPP work culture link:
4. Official link to the 3GPP meeting record:
RAN1 86 meetings https://www.3gpp.org/ftp/tsg_ran/WG1_RL1/TSGR1_86/Report/Final_Minutes_report_RAN1%2386_v100.zip
RAN1 86b meeting
RAN1 87 meetings https://www.3gpp.org/ftp/tsg_ran/WG1_RL1/TSGR1_87/Report/Final_Minutes_report_RAN1%2387_v100.zip
4. Sun Lei, "Analysis of Chinese Patent Application Data in the Field of LDPC Codec", published: 2015-02-04, China Knowledge Network related page link