This makes the outside worldMobile phoneThe operating system's attention is growing. What steps are needed to develop an operating system, and what problems must be faced?
Can the "two strong hegemony" pattern be shaken?
At present, Apple's iOS operating system and Google's Android operating system are the two most popular mobile operating systems in the world, and the two together account for almost 100% of the smartphone operating system market. In the development of the smart phone industry, industry giants have worried that their software ecosystem control of their hardware devices is not in their own hands, and they have developed their own operating systems. Saipan of Nokia, Bada and Tizen of Samsung,MicrosoftofWindowsPhone, BlackBerry's BlackBerry OS and other systems have been short-lived, but in the end failed to change the iOS and Android two hegemony situation.
In 2007, Apple launched a smartphone for iOS.iPhoneOne year later, Google and HTC also launched the world's first Android phone HTC Dream (T-Mobile G1). From the launch, the two operating systems have embarked on different paths: iOS relies on Apple's software development capabilities and the iPhone's hardware support to establish a "closed source" system; in contrast, the Android system is open source and flexible. Another path.
In the second year after its release, iOS began to join the Apple Store, attracting developers to develop apps, and Google subsequently launched a similar app, Market Place. At this time, just after the rise of smart phones, the emergence of the two major systems of iOS and Android seized the best "golden moment". Especially for Android, because Google only only made software at the time, its open source property allowed hardware manufacturers to put down many concerns that were controlled by others and actively joined the use of Android.
With more and more vendors and developers involved, Android has gradually become the world's largest mobile operating system. iOS also continues to grow and develop in its own ecosystem with Apple's products.
What steps are required to develop an operating system?
Tracing back to the source, the bottom layer of the iOS system is the secondary development of the UNIX kernel, while the bottom layer of Android is based on the secondary development of the LINUX kernel. Both of them are two branches extending on the basis of the previous technical accumulation. A senior software engineer told the Global Times that both the UNIX and LINUX kernels are very mature, and it takes a lot of effort and expense to redevelop the kernel. If you want to develop an operating system, using an open source Linux kernel is usually the best option.
Even if you choose mature Linux as the bottom layer, developing an operating system is still a huge and complicated project. The above-mentioned industry people told the Global Times that the big difficulty in the development of the operating system is the kernel. On the basis of LINUX, the kernel also has many modules to be developed, not only the algorithms but also the architecture design and scalability of the software. Sex and so on. In addition, the operating system requires a complete set of knowledge system framework, programming interface, programming language and other infrastructure to distinguish intellectual property protection from Android and iOS systems.
Developing a new operating system requires not only a large amount of human and financial investment, but also a deep technical accumulation and continuous optimization and upgrade of the developer. Therefore, the development of the operating system is a long-term work. Therefore, most of the mobile phone manufacturers' operating systems are optimized and modified based on the Android system, and some improvements in performance and experience, but did not touch the Android kernel.
In April this year,HuaweiThe "Ark Compiler" was announced at the P30 Mobile China Conference. The so-called compiler is to translate the high-level language that is usually developed into another language that the machine can recognize. It can be considered as a communication bridge between people and machines. The industry generally believes that the Ark compiler means that Huawei has begun to involve the optimization of the underlying Android system, but this result is still a long way from building its own operating system.
Supporting ecology is the key to the key
Whether on smartphones or computers, Chinese companies and research institutions have tried to develop operating systems. However, the reason why these operating systems are not popular, the biggest threshold is still based on the operating system of the operating system is not perfect. In plain language, there is an operating system but not enough applications.
According to statistics released by industry research institutes in 2018, as of the end of 2017, there are 2.1 million apps in Apple Store and 3.6 million apps in Google Play. This huge ecosystem has become both iOS and Android. The biggest barrier to the market position of large systems.
A technology industry analyst told the Global Times that the success of the operating system is difficult to apply the ecological prosperity, ensure the system experience of software and hardware integration, ensure the stability and security of the system, how to attract more empty shell platform. Application developers come in to develop software is the key issue.
The above analysts said that from a more macro perspective, the focus of the operating system success is whether it can build a complete ecosystem that can connect multiple entities in the industry chain such as software developers, chip companies, terminal companies, and operators. From the history of operating systems such as Android, iOS, and Windows, these operating systems, which are widely used around the world, are based on the joint development and maintenance of global developers.
For Huawei's self-developed operating system, many industry insiders said in an interview with the Global Times that although Huawei needs to overcome many difficulties in system development and ecological construction, it is based on Huawei's strength in the hardware field. China's huge market and the rapid development of China's Internet industry, Huawei's operating system may have the opportunity to "turn the crisis into opportunity" and embark on an independent road.
Despite the huge challenges, the pace of smartphone manufacturers developing their own operating systems has not stopped. The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) recently analyzed that as Google began to promote its Pixel brand of smart phones, its neutral posture as a software vendor has been lost. In the long run, smartphone manufacturers will think more seriously about whether to develop a viable alternative to the Android operating system.