Bian Ce, Ming Ming, from the concave templeQuotation Report Public Number QbitAI
Google, started with Cold Fusion.
This is calledNuclear Energy Edition <Water Change Oil”The idea, which was first proposed 30 years ago, has been rejected by the mainstream physics community as "pseudoscience".
The nuclear fusion reaction that can occur in the original tens of millions of degrees of high temperature occurs under conditions close to normal temperature, normal pressure and relatively simple equipment. If it can become a reality, it meansOnly waterIt can create unlimited energy.
At the same time, the oil, coal and other resources that the entire society relies on will be replaced and become the past.
Regrettably, this kind of comparison, and even beyond the research of “water-to-oil”, has never been confirmed. So that the relevant researchers are referred to as liar, joke.
For 30 years, authoritative journals such as Nature and Science have been critical of it, and there have been no published research papers on cold nuclear fusion.
But now, Google is betting heavily on MIT scientists.
Nature accidentally published a series of articles,Re-examine cold fusion(Revisiting the cold case of cold fusion).
So, "pseudoscience" is going to be named?
Google & ldquo; start & rdquo; cold nuclear fusion
Nature revealed in related articles that since 2015, Google has been providing experimental funds for cold fusion research, amounting to US$10 million, which is equivalent to nearly RMB 70 million.
This week, Google’s project was peer reviewed on Nature’s Perspective section. This article, namedRe-examine cold fusion(Revisiting the cold case of cold fusion).
Participating institutions include MIT, the University of British Columbia, the University of Maryland, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and more.
Google's team has explored three experimental devices that were proposed to produce cold nuclear fusion. Two involve palladium and hydrogen, and the other involves metal powder and hydrogen. Similarly, in hundreds of experiments, no evidence was found about the feasibility of cold nuclear fusion.
However, they have made some progress in measurement and materials science and technology, such as new methods for measuring small changes in thermal energy, which will improve the precision of various experiments in the future.
Researchers say these advances can help energy research. They also hope that their work will inspire others to re-examine cold fusion experiments.
Google project manager Matthew Trevithick said that funding research is not just a pursuit of cold nuclear fusion. If it is limited to this, it will not be so interested in this team.
Google's team has 30 research experts who have access to each other's data and devices and can review each other's work.
Their findings have published 12 papers in the past two years: 9 in peer-reviewed journals and 3 in arXiv preprinted servers.
Review the experiment 30 years ago
Fleischmann is demonstrating his experimental setup
Nuclear fusion usually takes place at tens of millions of degrees of high temperature, such as the sun core and hydrogen bomb explosion. This process is calledThermonuclear fusion.
Some people speculate that a metal catalyst like palladium can absorb hydrogen atoms and thus can be carried out at lower temperatures.Cold nuclear fusion. The reaction temperature does not exceed 1000 degrees, compared to tens of millions of degrees can be said to be "very cold".
In 1989, the world's leading electrochemical experts Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons found that there was abnormal heat release when electrolyzing heavy water with palladium electrodes.
In most cases, the power input to the cell is equal to the calculated power and the system temperature is stable at around 30°C. However, at some point, the temperature suddenly rises to about 50 & deg; C, while the input power does not change.
Sometimes the high temperature process can last for two days or more, and once it happens, it will be repeated several times in the experiment.
Several reaction and experimental devices possible for cold nuclear fusion
The heat generated in the reaction is more than the energy input to the entire system. According to the law of conservation of energy, the extra heat must have other sources. Fleischmann thinks it is heavydeuteriumnuclearNuclear fusion has taken place.
They published three peer-reviewed papers, but the article for Nature was rejected.
Other scientists tried to reproduce their experiments, but none of them succeeded. Google researchers tested three experimental clues that they thought were sufficiently credible and did not repeat the results.
One of them, they tried to initiate fusion with palladium adsorption. But at high concentrations, the Google team was unable to produce stable samples.
The second is the follow-up of American physicists working in the 1990s, claiming that by bombarding palladium with a hot cesium ion pulse, an abnormal level of enthalpy is produced, and another hydrogen isotope produced by a nuclear reaction alone. Google’s analysis of nuclear signals revealed that this experiment did not produce flaws.
The last experiment was to heat the metal powder in a hydrogen-rich environment. Some current supporters of cold fusion claim that this process produces too much unexplained heat, which they believe is the result of nuclear fusion. But in 420 tests, the Google-funded team did not find excess heat.
In other words, Google has not found any viable evidence for cold nuclear fusion.
In addition, there is another way to achieve cold nuclear fusion — — bubble nuclear fusion. When sound waves of sufficient strength cause rapid compression of bubbles in the liquid, tens of thousands of degrees of high temperature may be generated.
An Indian scholar believes that nuclear fusion will also be triggered in this process, but it is not recognized by the mainstream academic community. He himself has been revoked the professorship because of academic misconduct.
In the past 30 years, many scientists have gone on and on, only hope to achieve cold nuclear fusion, and let humans use inexhaustible energy, but without exception, they have not come up with reliable evidence.
Some people want to take shortcuts, and mainstream scientists are struggling on the path of artificially controlled nuclear fusion.
Laser nuclear fusion, tokamak, and imitation star, these experiments have been slow to develop for decades, but they seem more promising. Some reaction devices are already close to being able to output energy outward.
Cold nuclear fusion is considered to be "pathological science", and pseudoscience is almost the same. Hacker News users know that Google is investing in this kind of research, which is scornful:
“This is not a very difficult problem, it is actually impossible. ”
“Google is completely wasting money on research that has no hope of success. ”
“If Google takes nuclear fusion seriously, it should invest in mainstream research. ”
Google's nuclear power path
Google's layout of nuclear energy is not just this time. Going back, it is possible to go to 2010.
In April of that year, the US technology blog TechCrunch reported that Google acquired a company related to the development and design of small mobile high-efficiency nuclear power generators.
The company has developed a new program that enables efficient isotope separation. The primary use of this technology is to enrich uranium. Enriched uranium is an inevitable condition for the production of nuclear energy.
In addition, Google is also using its own AI technology to cut into the field of nuclear energy.
In 2017, Futurism reported that Google worked with Tri Alpha Energy (TAE), a fusion company, to develop a nuclear fusion algorithm and published related papers.
The algorithm, called "Optometrist" algorithm, is driven by machine learning technology and helps experimenters select the best parameters for nuclear fusion experiments.
These two actions are the mainstream practices of current nuclear energy research.
This time, Google chose to fund the research on cold nuclear fusion, which was considered by many to be "a shortcut".
Domestic netizens have even pulled out the “Nanyang Water Vehicle”. In contrast, it is said: Do you want to compete with our waterwheel?
But as the Nature series shows, there are also people who believe that there is no viable evidence. It may be that the research is not comprehensive enough, but we cannot exclude any scientists who explore related research.
What do you think?