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Ten events that forever change the planet: the burning Amazon and the volcanic resurrection

via:驱动之家     time:2020/1/13 10:19:46     readed:92

Most of the time, according to foreign media, the earth under our feet seems to last forever. Land, sea, sky

In the past year, we've seen moments like this, from wildfires that destroy ecosystems to earthquakes that instantly change landscape, that change the planet forever.

Burning Amazon

Incredible fire season in the Amazon Basin in 2019

These fires, together with human logging, accelerate the disappearance of the Amazon rainforest. According to the Brazilian Institute of space research, deforestation in Brazil increased by 278% in July 2019, and 2253 square kilometers of vegetation were lost in that month alone.

Arctic sea ice thinning

Another alarming trend in 2019 is the continued decline of Arctic sea ice. According to the Arctic sea ice model, there will be more and more ice free sea areas in the future. This year, this new normal has been confirmed again in the Bering Sea. By April this year, there was almost no sea ice in the Bering Sea. In the past, sea ice peaked in April and did not begin to melt until around May.

Meanwhile, researchers found this year that the oldest and thickest sea ice in the Arctic, which usually lasts more than five years, is disappearing twice as fast as younger sea ice. It is estimated that the Arctic sea ice may disappear seasonally by 2044. The past year has clearly shown that this change is continuing.

Fatal landslide in Jayapura, Indonesia

In March 2019, continuous rainfall turned the steep slopes of Papua, Indonesia, into flowing mud and debris. Landslides have swept through villages, killing more than 100 people and nearly as many missing. According to the Red Cross and Red Crescent, the floods have forced thousands of people out of their homes. A large amount of rainfall falls on the steep slopes of the one eyed giant mountain in Papua province, and a considerable part of the vegetation on the mountain has been cut down to develop agriculture; the resulting floods and landslides have left deep scars on the mountain and polluted the reservoirs providing drinking water.

Peru earthquake

At 2:41 a.m. local time on May 26, a magnitude 8.0 earthquake occurred near the town of Yurimaguas in Peru. Due to the remote location of the earthquake, the epicenter is deep in the earth's crust, so the death toll is only one. However, the earthquake also released 6.27 million tons of TNT energy, permanently changing the landscape. The Bank of vayaga River collapses, and the landslide rips the vegetation on the hillside and cracks the road.

The volcano boomed back to life

On the volcanic archipelago between Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula and Japan's Hokkaido island sits a volcano called

The remoteness of the volcano means that it only seriously affects air travel, forcing planes to turn away from ash clouds. But the day after the eruption, a crew on a cruise ship approached the island, snapping a snap of the once-sleeping volcano. According to the Smithsonian

Vanishing earthquake Island

Pakistani

The island was formed in a 7.7-magnitude earthquake that killed more than 800 people in southwestern Pakistan in September 2013. When the Arab and Eurasian plates are pushed together, the buried hot mud carries rocks and boulders to the surface. As a result, a small island protruding about 20 metres above sea level has been formed, which is measured to be about 90 metres long and about 40 metres wide. Locals have named the island Zalzala Koh, in Urdu

By 2019, under erosion, the earthquake island's sediment had almost disappeared. NASA researchers say the short-lived life cycle is associated with

Destroy Dorian in the Bahamas

On September 1,2019, slow-moving Atlantic Category 5 hurricane Hurricane Dorian swept through the Bahamas, bringing hours of torrential rain and strong winds to the Abaco and Grand Bahama islands with maximum winds of 295km/h. According to Finnish commercial satellite

Hurricane Dorian destroyed the island's human infrastructure, killing dozens. The storm also damaged the Bahamas' natural ecosystems, destroyed trees and threatened wildlife that depended on the island's ecology. Scientists fear that the hurricane could kill the world's last subspecies of the Bahamas, Sitta pusilla insulari. After Hurricane Matthew hit the great Bahamas in 2016, the number of birds found only on the island of the great Bahamas was reduced to just a few. It's not clear whether the species has survived, but terrible storms and flooding have undoubtedly damaged their forest habitat, and there are concerns that the hurricane is a deadly blow to this rare and endangered species.

Pacific warming

The Pacific experienced a significant ocean heat wave when the waters of the Atlantic were overwhelmed by Hurricane Dorian. This incident in the Pacific is almost

By definition, these heat waves are only temporary events, not a permanent rise in ocean temperatures. But scientists are increasingly worried that these high-temperature events will become the new normal. Cisco, director of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) science program

Iceberg collapse in Antarctica

Scientists had predicted that by 2015, an iceberg in Antarctica would crack. On September 26 this year, the 1636 square kilometer ice finally broke from the Ameri ice shelf in the east of the Antarctic continent. Scientists report that the ice shelf seems to break up once every 60 to 70 years.

Despite changes in the coastline of Antarctica, icebergs are already floating in the ocean, so their collapse will not affect sea level. On the other hand, ice loss in Antarctica is accelerating. Scientists estimate that in the past 25 years, Antarctica has reduced 3 trillion tons of ice, resulting in an 8 mm rise in sea level.

More and more carbon in the atmosphere

Perhaps the most profound change the earth will experience in 2019 is the sustained carbon emissions from humans to the oceans and the atmosphere, reaching record levels this year.

Human activities, according to a report from the Global Carbon Project

永远改变地球的10个事件:燃烧的亚马逊和火山复活

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