On March 10, Li Yulian (right), Liu Jincai's mother, watched the children's online class. Novel coronavirus pneumonia affects Zhungeer Qi primary school students in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region from the end of 2. Liu Jincai, a junior high school student, lives in hongshuliang village, Longkou Town, Zhungeer banner, which is located on the edge of the Loess Plateau with ravines and weak mobile phone signals.
At the top of a hill in mangrove village on march 10, local mobile company staff were checking the operation G four signal receivers. Xinhua News Agency reporter Liu Lei / photo
The outbreak is a touchstone. Facing the sudden outbreak of new crown pneumonia, hundreds of millions of students carry out large-scale online education. This is a test of our education system's ability to deal with major public health emergencies, and it is also an unprecedented scale practical exercise in the process of promoting online education in China.
How do educational administrations, teachers, students and parents view this large-scale online education "practical exercise"? What is the current situation of online education in China? What is the future trend of online education? From the end of February to the beginning of March, 2020, the provincial and ministerial Collaborative Innovation Center for information and basic education balanced development and Zhongguancun Internet Education Innovation Center set up a research group to carry out a nationwide large-scale online questionnaire survey covering seven major regions, including East China, central China and South China, with 62446 samples of primary and secondary school students and their parents, 7111 samples of primary and secondary school teachers, and educational administrative mechanism 3110 copies. The research group hopes to use large-scale online survey data to make rational analysis, so as to provide scientific data support for promoting China's education informatization to lead education modernization and achieve the goal of education modernization 2035.
Local educational administrations
From the beginning of the confused
Take your time
Of the 3110 samples of educational administrative institutions surveyed ,97.01 per cent of the total number of samples were "suspended from school" during the epidemic period, indicating that almost all regions responded positively to the Ministry of Education's call to carry out the work of "no school suspension ". In addition ,70% of the schools surveyed have developed teaching guidance programs and work guides to provide necessary guidance for primary and secondary school teachers in online teaching and management.
From the initial stage of the epidemic, the local education administrative departments were at a loss, and gradually moved to take it easy and work together to mobilize a large number of human, material and financial resources in a very short period of time, so as to effectively realize the "no suspension of classes" and fully reflect the advantages of the new national system. This large-scale online education practice is not only a major test of China's educational information infrastructure and information literacy of teachers and students, but also an important test of the modernization of the educational governance ability and governance system of local education administrative departments, which provides a rare opportunity to guide local education administrative departments to develop online education in the future.
Online teaching equipment
More than 70 students use smartphones
Of the 62446 samples of primary and secondary school students and their parents surveyed, the most used terminal devices for students to study online were smartphones, accounting for 73% of the total sample. This indicates that mobile phones, as the most Internet access devices today, have the characteristics of convenient use, easy to carry and free from location restrictions, and play an irreplaceable important role in the process of home online learning for students during the epidemic period. The use of tablets accounted for 12 per cent of the total sample size and television for 5 per cent, indicating that in some student groups of households there may be insufficient mobile devices such as mobile phones, and therefore there is a need television for learning. In addition, laptops, desktops and other devices account for 4,3 and 3 per cent, respectively. Notably, one percent of parents surveyed said they had neither internet television nor mobile devices such as mobile phones.
Less than 30% of teachers' live programmes
More than half of parents often accompany their children to study
During the epidemic period, the top three public service platforms for primary and secondary school teachers' use of educational resources were the national public service platform for educational resources (63.69%), the provincial (city, district) education cloud service platform (52.81%) and the school-based resource pool (35.77%), which indicated that the national and provincial public service platforms for educational resources played a main role. In addition, the public education resources of enterprises (27.11%) also account for a certain proportion, but the education resources of regions (24.3%) and the self-made resources of key teachers (31.81%) are relatively small.
The vast majority of teachers indicated that pre- was pre-school prepared, with the top three being the selection of courses, exercises and assignments (75.98 per cent) in the resource bank, the preparation of online teaching network equipment (66.39 per cent), the distribution of online education resources to students for autonomous learning (46.8 per cent), but 7.73 per cent of primary and secondary school teachers did not consider it necessary to prepare in advance.
The top three ways of teachers' online teaching are to watch the national or regional platform courses and answer questions in a centralized way (56.04%), broadcast famous teacher courses and teacher guidance (48.46%), and live teacher courses (29.25%).
During the epidemic period, 23.4% and 29.6% of parents said that they always accompanied or often accompanied their children in online learning, 38.1% of parents thought that they occasionally accompanied, and 7.9% of parents said that they were not accompanied. The top three items of parents assisted children's online learning were online learning urging and reminding (74.81%), downloading and uploading homework (50.54%), and logging in learning platform (47.25%).
Online learning content
An absolute advantage outside the number of words
Psychological and physical education accounts for over 50 per cent
In terms of online learning content, Chinese, mathematics and foreign languages are absolutely dominant, accounting for more than 90% of the total. Other courses, such as physics, chemistry, biology and geography, account for more than 30%. It is worth noting that mental health education (62.6%) and physical education (55%) courses account for more than half of online learning courses, second only to language number, and music (40.1%) and art (40.1%) also account for a large proportion. Many other schools carry out safety education, popular science education, life education and responsibility education through interdisciplinary theme exploration and project research. It can be seen that the online learning content of students under the great epidemic is relatively rich, but the online learning courses are not balanced, and some non main courses account for a relatively small proportion.
Online teaching issues
Teachers think it is the most difficult for teachers and students to interact insufficiently
Students and parents are most concerned about visual impairment
In terms of the difficulties and problems faced by online teaching, teachers believe that the top three are inadequate interaction between teachers and students (39.78%), difficulty in judging students' understanding (39.29%), and unsatisfactory assignment, acceptance and evaluation (36.2%).
As far as students are concerned, it is mainly reflected in the difficulties and problems encountered in the process of online learning. The top three are the influence of online learning on vision (78.04%), the effect of online Catton on learning (64.91%) and the less interaction between teachers and students (46.05%).
As far as parents are concerned, they mainly worry about their children's eyesight (78.04%), Internet addiction (60.43%) and lack of effective supervision (42.86%).
It can be seen that teachers, students and parents have different starting points for the difficulties and problems faced by online teaching during the epidemic, so they all have different views. However, their common concerns are not enough interaction between teachers and students, and the impact of online teaching on students' vision.
Online Teaching Effect
Over 70% of teachers value online homework submission most
Nearly 70% of the students are positive and satisfied
Nearly 70% of parents think their children are basically adaptable
Teachers evaluate the effect of online teaching, the top three are online submission homework (73.01%), students online answer questions (40.36%), online testing (36.1%), parents online feedback information (27.08%) also accounted for a certain proportion. It can be seen that during the epidemic period, most teachers still use traditional evaluation methods to evaluate the effect of online teaching. It is worth noting that there is a lack of evaluation of teachers and students in the evaluation of online teaching effect, and the evaluation method is relatively single, and there is a lack of evaluation on the contribution degree of online learning and the utilization of online learning resources.
Students' evaluation of the effect of online teaching is mainly reflected in the attitude and satisfaction of online learning. In terms of online learning attitude, 11% of the samples are students who like it very much, and 56% of the samples are students who like it more. Students who dislike online courses account for 31%, while students who dislike online courses account for only 2%. In terms of online learning satisfaction, 13.7% and 57.4% of the students are very satisfied or relatively satisfied, 17.9% of the students are average, and 8.7% and 2.7% of the students are not very satisfied or very dissatisfied.
Parents' evaluation of the effect of online teaching is mainly reflected in the adaptability and focus of their children's online learning. 59% of the parents said that their children basically adapted to online learning during the epidemic period and could acquire knowledge through online learning, 11% of the parents thought that their children were fully adapted to online learning, 27% of the parents thought that their children were not suitable for online learning, and 3% of the parents thought that their children were not suitable for online learning at all. In terms of online learning focus, 12.85% of parents said that their children were very focused in the process of online learning and would listen carefully and take notes; 57.9% of parents said that their children were more focused in the process of learning, 26.98% of parents said that their children were not very focused in the process of learning, 2.28% of parents said that their children were very unfocused and couldn't concentrate on the lessons at all, online teaching No effect. In addition, parents think that the top three factors that affect children's online learning effect are students' self-control (62.66%), family learning atmosphere (48.60%), and whether learning resources are interesting (28.15%).
It can be seen that teachers, students and parents pay different attention to the evaluation of online teaching effect. However, it is worth noting that during the epidemic, most teachers still use traditional methods to evaluate the effect of online teaching, and most students have a positive attitude towards online teaching and a high degree of satisfaction. Most parents think that their children have a positive attitude towards online learning and can adapt to it. More than 70% of parents say that their children can concentrate in the process of online learning.
Add online teaching content after the epidemic
Nearly 80% of teachers and students agree
Nearly 40% of parents disapprove
After the epidemic, 22.7% and 54.7% of the teachers were very or relatively in favor of increasing the content of online teaching, 19.3% of the teachers were not very in favor, only 3.3% of the teachers were very not in favor. 25.2%, 51.3%, 17.5% and 4.2% of the post epidemic students are very or relatively in favor of online learning. 62% of parents expressed their support and 38% disapproved of whether to increase the content of online teaching after the epidemic.
It can be seen that online teaching has the characteristics of not being restricted by time and place, obtaining high quality teaching resources and being able to watch repeatedly, which is one of the trends of the future development of education and the inevitable result of educational informatization. But the online teaching also has too much dependence on the student study autonomy, needs the parent's cooperation, the real-time interaction feeling is not enough and so on shortcoming. In the future development of online education, we still need to improve constantly to ensure the effect of online learning.
Where is online education in primary and secondary schools after the epidemic
China's future online education market scale and the number of users are considerable, online education will become a dominant education model. But the big test also shows some problems, such as insufficient interaction of online teaching, single evaluation method of online teaching, poor self-control of students' online learning and so on. So, how to develop online education in primary and secondary schools after the epidemic? The research group suggested that the top-level design of online education should be strengthened. Scientific prediction of future online education development scale and demand, strengthen the future online education investment, online education resources and platforms, online education environment, online teacher team building and other aspects of planning; pay attention to online education system and mechanism innovation, give full play to the enthusiasm of the government, enterprises, schools and so on.
Pay attention to teachers' online teaching ability training. Based on the actual situation of the school and the characteristics of the teachers, targeted training should be carried out; teachers' information-based thinking should be cultivated, and teachers should be guided to use information-based means to change the traditional classroom; the application ability of information technology such as teachers' online guidance, teacher-student interaction, homework review, learning situation analysis and question answering guidance should be taken as the training focus, so that teachers can skillfully use the intelligent retrieval of educational resources There are visual display tools for teaching across time and space and teaching evaluation tools under information environment.
Ensure the quality of online teaching. Pay attention to the innovation in the development of all media courseware, the presentation of teaching, the design of teaching content and other aspects, produce more excellent courses, fully meet the needs of students' online learning; optimize online teaching support system, provide rich tools, platforms and platforms for communication and cooperation; establish a comprehensive and whole process monitoring system, and realize seamless monitoring of online teaching process.
Improve students' online learning efficiency. Create a good online learning environment, such as creating learning groups, creating a positive psychological atmosphere, encouraging students to participate in discussions and so on to enhance communication and interaction between teachers and students, reduce students' loneliness in online learning; according to students' characteristics and interest preferences, according to the characteristics of original resources and subject characteristics, appropriate processing and processing to achieve better learning results; provide effective learning support services, such as technical support, learning resources update, learning activity arrangement, learning process supervision, learning problem solving and other learning support services to improve online learning efficiency.
Cultivate students' ability of online autonomous learning. Give full play to the monitoring function of online learning platform, send a series of reminders such as activity plan, schedule, study progress, examination plan and forum feedback regularly to help students carry out personal learning management conveniently; urge parents to create a good learning atmosphere and cultivate children's good habits and interest in learning online at home.
focus on online learning effect evaluation. Strengthen the evaluation of online teachers, take teacher-student interaction, online teaching activity organization and online learning resources as important evaluation content; pay attention to mutual evaluation among students, promote students' self-learning reflection in feedback, so as to deepen students' understanding, internalization and thinking of knowledge; Combine human evaluation with machine evaluation to improve the accuracy of online learning effect evaluation.
(Wen / Wang Jixin is a professor of central China Normal University, and Fu Weidong is an associate professor of central China Normal University)