According to US media reports on December 8,NASA recently released a 188 page report outlining the seven scientific objectives of the Artemis III mission, which began in 2024It includes further explanation of the impact history of the Earth Moon system, so as to uncover the "mysterious veil" over the head of "moon goddess".
American media pointed out in the report that the ultimate goal of the Artemis Project is to establish an "Artemis base camp" on the moon. Although all activities are being carried out in an orderly manner, the realization of this ambitious plan requires tens of billions of dollars and the approval of the president and Congress. Whether NASA can obtain sufficient funding support may need to be seen.
Set seven scientific objectives
The artemis-1 mission is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2021 to test the space launch system (SLS) and the unmanned Orion spacecraft, the physicists' organization network reported on the 8th. "Artemis 2" mission will be launched in 2023, when manned flight test activities will be carried out, but will not land on the moon. "Artemis 3" project began in 2024, aiming to send a man and a female astronaut to the moon, if successful, this woman will become the first woman to go to the moon.
According to the 188 page report, NASA has set seven scientific goals for the Artemis 3 mission, including: understanding the formation and evolution of planets, because the moon can be used as a reference for other "air thin" celestial bodies (such as asteroids); and understanding the polar volatiles of the moon, including water known to exist in the moon's south pole Characteristics and sources of ice; interpretation of the impact history of the Earth Moon system because, unlike the earth's surface, the lunar surface can preserve craters for a long time; reveal information about the ancient sun and the astronomical environment around us, because records of solar activity can be embedded in the surface of the moon; observing the universe and space environment from a unique location may help to develop the sky from the back of the moon Literature research (and other scientific work); experimental scientific research in the lunar environment, once NASA determines what experiments will be carried out on the moon, the relevant details will be further clarified; investigation and mitigation of exploration risks, NASA hopes that lunar exploration activities will provide important information for sending people to Mars in the 1930s.
Emphasis on man-machine cooperation
NASA also stressed in the report that at that time, astronauts can only stay on the moon for six and a half days at most, and they will cooperate with machines to carry out relevant tasks.
In recent decades, NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and other missions have been inspecting the lunar surface from above. Despite the continuous progress in artificial intelligence and machine imaging, sending astronauts to the lunar surface for on-site exploration is a great progress, the report said.
Therefore, it is necessary for astronauts to participate in geological investigation and training. These practical activities will enable astronauts to determine the geological value of rocks and make their sampling work more accurate. "For this sample return program to achieve the best results, the key is geological observation by trained astronauts who can communicate with scientists on earth in real time with modern tools," NASA officials said in the report
Another NASA training recommendation says: "astronauts should be trained and equipped to collect a variety of surface and subsurface samples."
Artemis 3 is not equipped with a lunar rover, which means astronauts will work on foot, just as they did when they first landed on the moon on Apollo 11 in 1969, US space network reported.
However, NASA said the mission from Artemis 4 will include a non pressure lunar rover to "expand the detection range and allow more diversified sampling of surface and subsurface samples in the region.".
Capital guarantee is the key to success
If all goes according to plan, NASA will launch a series of manned missions to the moon after the Artemis 3 mission, which will eventually build a permanent scientific research station called Artemis base camp. The base camp will include habitat, power systems (possibly solar or battery) and communication systems. And, as scientists build more infrastructure on the moon's surface, future expeditions could last months or even longer.
Several milestones of the Artemis Project are being carried out in an orderly manner, some of which are about to be realized, including the testing of lunar spacesuits in the next few years, the "green operation test series" of the core stage of artemis-1 rocket, the Orion spacecraft that will test artemis-1 in a vacuum environment, and the "ar'er" The "themis-1" mission is scheduled to carry out a manned round-trip flight to the moon next year.
Nevertheless, whether the Artemis Project can be fulfilled will largely depend on whether NASA can get full funding in the next few years. NASA hopes to get $3.2 billion for its human landing system in fiscal year 2021, but only $1 billion has been allocated in the Senate version of the budget bill and only $600 million in the House version, according to the US space news network. The passage of any bill will put its 2024 lunar landing schedule in jeopardy.