[article / observer.com columnist Li Huichao]
From the end of February to the beginning of March, the news about the development of the Long March 9 rocket was intensively exposed: when the state leaders visited the lunar exploration achievements exhibition in the Great Hall of the people, the Long March 9 model appeared on the scene, and its huge rocket body became one of the most attractive rocket models. The display board beside it also clearly positioned it as the heavy rocket model in China's rocket series.
Shortly after that, academician Luan Enjie also said publicly that the research and development of a 100 ton low earth orbit launch vehicle will be carried out during the 14th Five Year Plan period. At the end of this paper, the good news came that the 500 ton liquid oxygen kerosene engine for heavy rocket has made progress in test run. From all aspects of information, Long March 9 from the idea into reality has basically become a foregone conclusion.
Comparison of manned lunar landing plans (bragging) in different countries before and after 2010. From reference 1
In a bit of a hurry, if we only want to achieve a symbolic manned lunar landing, we do not need to develop a giant rocket such as long March 9. In the mission plan of 2010, there is a plan to use the magic version of Long March 5 to land on the moon. At present, the Long March 5 rocket configuration has been used. The core stage uses two yf77 LOX / LH2 engines and four 3.35M boosters, each equipped with two yf100 LOX / kerosene engines. The magic revamp plans to replace the core level engine with four yf100, and bundle six 3.35M boosters of 2 * yf100 at the same time.
After such a transformation with the ready-made things, the low earth orbit carrying capacity of the modified version of the Long March 5 magic can reach 50 tons, which is more than double that of the long march 5b, which is ready to launch the space station. When using magic Long March 5 to carry out the moon landing mission, it needs to carry out three launches. The transfer rocket to the moon and the manned spacecraft to the moon, which will provide the follow-up flight power for the spacecraft, will be respectively launched into the low earth orbit, and after a docking combination in the low earth orbit, they will fly to the moon.
During the design of Apollo moon landing mission, American astronauts also proposed this kind of moon landing mode of multiple launches and combination in low earth orbit. However, at that time, the docking technology of low earth orbit was not very mature, and the increase of launch and docking times meant the decline of mission reliability, so this mode was not selected in the end.
When various countries have set up the flag of this century's lunar landing, they also put forward more mission contents than Apollo's. First of all, landing on the moon in the 21st century will not only send astronauts to the moon, but also establish a lunar base to realize the long-term stay of astronauts on the moon and accumulate the necessary technologies for planetary development and construction. In addition, besides the moon, Mars and asteroids are also the targets of manned flight. Therefore, the rockets and spacecraft developed by the mission should not only be able to land on the moon, but also have the ability to further fly to other celestial bodies.
Long March 9 effect diagram. The length of Long March 9's arrow will be more than 100 meters, which is about the height of a 30 story building
The appearance of SLS is like a combination of space shuttle booster and Saturn 5
In addition to the Long March 9, China's next generation of manned rockets are also being developed, which is expected to match China's new generation of manned spacecraft and realize its first flight earlier than the Long March 9.
Different from the heavy-duty rocket with the priority of carrying capacity, the primary requirement of manned rocket is reliability. According to the published data, the new manned rocket will also adopt a diameter of 5 meters, with a low earth orbit carrying capacity of 70 tons and a lunar orbit carrying capacity of 25 tons. During the development of the Long March 9 and lunar module, this kind of rocket can carry out advanced demonstration and verification missions such as manned lunar orbiting and lunar orbiting with the new spacecraft. In the real mission of landing on the moon, the new manned rocket and the new spacecraft will also be launched separately, dock with other parts of the Long March 9 in low earth orbit, and then run to the moon together.
All this is not very far away.
 Long Lehao. Thoughts on some issues of China's manned lunar landing project [J]. Missile and space delivery technology, 2010 (06): 1-5
 Wang Xiaojun. Future development prospects of China's space transportation system [J]. Missiles and space delivery technology, 2021 (01): 1-6
 Hou Jianwen, Zhao Chen, Chang Liping, Chen Hui, Qian Haipeng. General concept of future lunar exploration [J]. Manned space flight, 2015,21 (05): 425-434