Novel coronavirus pneumonia is a dangerous place in the world, where COVID-19 is raging. If it is exposed to a single contaminated air, it will kill countless people.
And it's safer than any other place. Armed at different levels, there are more than a dozen kinds of protective measures.
This is the biological laboratory.
Most of the viruses found by human beings are stored in biological laboratories of various countries, such as leprosy virus, HIV virus, Ebola virus
Biological laboratory has the function of storing virus and carrying out scientific research, especially the research and development of new crown vaccine is inseparable from high-level biological laboratory.
Four levels of biological laboratory
The power of different viruses is also different. The corresponding protective measures are not the same whether it is to carry out experiments or to store viruses. Therefore, there are four different levels of biological laboratories corresponding to the harm of viruses.
The first level is the most common bacterial virus, while the fourth level is a high-level laboratory that needs to be built with great efforts.
Basic laboratory: Level 1 Biosafety (P1) picture from who
This is mainly for the operation of microorganisms that will not cause human or animal disease. There are often such laboratories in schools.
P1 does not need to carry out the prevention of biohazard problems. It only needs gloves and some face protection to do the experiment, and the laboratory does not necessarily need to be separated.
Basic laboratory: biosafety level II (P2)
P2 bacteria can spread to humans, but the harm is limited, such as influenza virus.Laboratory personnel and personnel dealing with pathogens need to be scientists with specific training and advanced training.
P3 deals with local or foreign pathogens,These pathogens can be inhaled to cause serious or potentially fatal diseases, such as HIV.
The protection here is further strengthened, the waste gas in the laboratory needs to be filtered before it can be discharged to the outside, the ventilation also needs to be directed into the laboratory, the personnel are restricted to enter the laboratory, and so on, and is equipped with Biosafety Level 3 safety equipment.
Most of the pathogens of P4 still have no known vaccine or treatment, such as smallpox and Ebola. Items brought back from extraterrestrials also need to be studied here.
Protection is also the highest level. The four entrances and exits of biological laboratory will be equipped with multiple shower equipment, vacuum chamber and ultraviolet light chamber, and other safety precautions that can destroy all biological hazards.
Multiple airlock protection, stop at the same time to open two doors, all air and water services will be disinfected to eliminate the possibility of accidental release.
Some partners can't help but think of the new crown that has killed millions of people all over the world. Such a highly contagious virus must be the highest level!
In fact, the new coronavirus is highly transmissible, but it is not an incurable disease. Highly pathogenic microorganisms such as HIV and new coronavirus belong to the third level of safety.
However, severe infectious diseases with more than half of the fatality rate, such as Marburg virus and Ebola virus, which come from primates in Africa, are ranked fourth.
The average death rate of Ebola virus was 88%. The death rate of Marburg virus without timely treatment was 88%. Even the death rate of timely treatment was more than 50%.
Virus leaks in history
Most of the high-level biological laboratories are built on the edge of large citiesIt can be imagined that the leakage of a level 3 to level 4 laboratory will cause immeasurable disasters in human history.
Yes, there have been virus leaks in history.
01. Smallpox virus leakage
In August 1978, the smallpox virus in the British laboratory leaked.
The smallpox virus, which had just been approved by who, was transmitted to Mrs. Parker, an anatomist photographer on the upper floor of the laboratory a few days after it was sent to the laboratory of the University of Birmingham School of medicine in the United Kingdom. The photographer had never been exposed to the virus.
Photographer Mrs. Parker died five days after the infection
More than 260 people were quarantined throughout Birmingham and her ward was closed for five years.
Smallpox virus in pakov under microscope
Mrs. Parker's workplace is on the upper floor of the laboratory where the smallpox virus is kept. Some experts speculate that the smallpox virus is transmitted to the upper floor through the air, but some experts retort that the smallpox virus will not be transmitted through the air.
So far, people have not found the way of smallpox virus leakage.
02. Chemical and biological weapons factory explosion
When it explodes,
After the explosion, hundreds of people near the factory were infected with anthrax, of which nearly 105 died. Even sheep 30 kilometers away were infected with anthrax (because sheep are more susceptible to the infection than people).
03. Speculation on new coronavirus
Since the outbreak of the disease, the cold word "fort Detrick biological base" has been mentioned frequently. This biological laboratory, built in the United States, has been revealed to have been studying a virus similar to the new crown.
Fort Detrick base
The US media revealed that a fatal respiratory disease of unknown origin (suspected to be a virus leak) broke out near the fort derrick biological base a few months before the outbreak in China, and then the fort derrick biological base was closed mysteriously. The US government has so far been reluctant to explain the reason for the sudden closure.
China's foreign ministry has also repeatedly called on the US side to tell the truth of the Fort De trique base.
We don't know whether it's true or not.
The more dangerous, the more strict protective measures
Although virus leakage occurs, it is also a very individual event, even a man-made accident. It is precisely because the consequences are too serious, so the more dangerous the research, the more strict the protective measures, we do not have to worry too much.
Taking P4 as an example, we can see from the layout of the laboratory,P4 requires not only a separate experimental building, but also dozens of protective measures.
For the main laboratory, main laboratory buffer room, isolation corridor, protective clothing replacement room, preparation room, shower area and so on, there are corresponding technical indicators. Ultra high cleaning level, constant range of temperature, humidity and pressure difference are the guarantee of experimental safety.
The American TV series blood disease also shows how many steps researchers need to take to enter P4 (in fact, there are more than four gates, and there are more than ten gates in total).
Go through a door first
Go through the third door
Enter the laboratory
Many doors inside are interlocked. If one door is not closed properly, the other door cannot be opened to avoid air circulation.
For P2 level and above laboratories, they are equipped with biosafety cabinets, and the operation of dangerous pathogens needs to be completed in the cabinets.
Operation in biosafety cabinet
Not only is the laboratory like a doll, but the experimenters will also carry out the detection, diagnosis, pathogenesis and vaccine research of virulent virus under the package of positive pressure clothing.
Wuhan National biosafety laboratory: the former post of Xinguan
P4 is not only the top biosafety, but also the most expensive in cost, operation and maintenance.It often costs hundreds of millions of yuan to build and tens of millions of yuan to maintain every year.
At present, the number of P4 laboratories is relatively small in the world, and there are more biosafety grade IV laboratories built or under construction in the worldMore than 50.
There are four biosafety grade IV laboratories in China, including Wuhan National biosafety laboratory, Harbin national high level biosafety laboratory for animal disease prevention and control, Institute of preventive medicine of Taiwan National Defense Medical College, and Kunyang Laboratory of Taiwan inspection and vaccine development center.
It is the first P4 laboratory officially put into operation in mainland China. There are three laboratories, two animal laboratories, one strain preservation room and one animal anatomy room. It can accommodate 24 scientific researchers to work at the same time.
The researchers are wearing positive pressure clothes, and the living pathogen has not been introduced into the laboratory at this time, so they can take photos
During the epidemic period, Wuhan National biosafety laboratory quickly determined the whole genome sequence of the new coronavirus, isolated the virus strain, and submitted the virus sequence to who, which played an indelible role in the subsequent global resistance to the new coronavirus!
Having a P4 laboratory is a good illustration of a country's economic and scientific research level. It will help virus research to a higher level.
Biological laboratories distributed in cities store all kinds of bacteria in the world. However, it is precisely because of these laboratories with different levels and strong safety that we have a better understanding of diseases and can fully cope with diseases when they come!
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Link to the original text:Tadpole staff